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Abnormal sperm morphology may be a contributing factor in male infertility.

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Last Updated: Dec 21, 2022

Some research suggests that acetyl-L-carnitine may improve fatigue associated with multiple sclerosis, but more study is needed.

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Last Updated: Dec 2, 2022

Acid reflux and GERD are closely related, but the terms aren't necessarily interchangeable.

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Last Updated: Jul 1, 2023

Various procedures can improve acne scars, but no single treatment is best for everyone.

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Last Updated: Oct 25, 2022

Most cases of acute bronchitis are caused by viruses and are contagious. Learn ways to reduce your risk of catching viruses that can cause bronchitis.

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Last Updated: May 16, 2019

Medicine you can get without a prescription may give some relief from acute sinusitis symptoms.

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Last Updated: Jan 18, 2024

Adrenal fatigue is a term used to describe a group of symptoms that aren't specific. It's not an official medical diagnosis.

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Last Updated: Apr 10, 2024

Adult bed-wetting is uncommon and requires evaluation by a doctor. Learn about possible causes.

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Last Updated: Jan 31, 2023

Consider these guidelines if you need to fly while you're pregnant.

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Last Updated: Dec 29, 2022

Planning for air travel with an infant? Know how air travel can affect a newborn's ears and breathing, and what you can do to keep your baby comfortable.

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Last Updated: Jan 5, 2024

Albuterol side effects — Managing reactions to quick-relief asthma medication.

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Last Updated: Aug 29, 2023

Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels.

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Last Updated: Oct 20, 2022

Health claims about alkaline water abound, but plain water is usually best.

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Last Updated: Apr 27, 2022

Find out what medicines can help you manage allergies while you're pregnant.

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Last Updated: Dec 2, 2023

The terms 'Alzheimer's disease' and 'dementia' are often used to mean the same thing — but here's the real difference between them.

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Last Updated: Mar 13, 2024

Alzheimer's prevention: Strategies for staying physically and mentally fit may be most effective.

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Last Updated: Mar 13, 2024

Zolpidem (Ambien) for insomnia is generally safe in the short term, but some people who take it may behave dangerously, such as driving while not awake.

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Last Updated: May 17, 2018

Try these tips to prevent and treat swelling of the ankles during pregnancy.

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Last Updated: Jul 9, 2024

Alcohol doesn't make antibiotics less effective. But it's still a good idea not to drink alcohol while taking antibiotics.

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Last Updated: Jun 6, 2024

Learn about common types of antibiotics used during pregnancy and their safety.

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Last Updated: Jul 9, 2024

Antidepressant withdrawal is possible if you stop taking an antidepressant abruptly — but it's generally preventable.

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Last Updated: Jan 29, 2019

Combining antidepressants and alcohol can worsen depression and cause other problems.

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Last Updated: Jun 9, 2017

An antidepressant isn't always a direct cause of weight gain. Learn the other causes of weight gain when taking antidepressants and how to manage weight.

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Last Updated: Nov 17, 2018

Antidepressants: Reasons treatment stops working.

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Last Updated: Jan 31, 2018

Sexual side effects are common with antidepressants in both men and women, but there are options to prevent or reduce such side effects.

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Last Updated: Jan 25, 2020

Anxiety can cause dramatic, temporary increases in blood pressure.

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Last Updated: Mar 7, 2024

Aortic valve calcification — once thought a harmless condition — may be a sign of heart valve disease.

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Last Updated: Jul 9, 2022

Proponents tout apple cider vinegar as a weight-loss aid, but there's little proof that it works.

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Last Updated: Apr 29, 2022

With this condition, older adults develop a gray arc around the cornea of the eyes.

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Last Updated: Jul 8, 2023

Artificial sweeteners, also called sugar substitutes, offer the sweetness of sugar without the calories.

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Last Updated: Jan 14, 2023

Not all eye drops are the same. Here's what to consider when choosing artificial tears for dry eyes.

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Last Updated: Feb 18, 2023

An aspirin allergy or sensitivity can cause serious symptoms.

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Last Updated: Apr 6, 2024

A Mayo Clinic specialist explains what you need to know about taking aspirin if you're pregnant.

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Last Updated: Nov 4, 2022

A Mayo Clinic expert discusses how acid reflux can make asthma worse.

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Last Updated: Mar 30, 2023

Can what you eat affect your asthma? Learn how healthy eating habits may reduce asthma symptoms.

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Last Updated: Dec 7, 2023

Atypical cells appear abnormal, but they aren't necessarily cancerous.

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Last Updated: Sep 16, 2022

Children with autism spectrum disorder often have other health issues, including problems related to digestion.

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Last Updated: May 21, 2019

Surgery is rarely needed to reattach a small chunk of bone when it gets pulled away from the main part of the bone by a tendon or ligament.

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Last Updated: Jun 3, 2022

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Find out when your baby's weight might be of concern and how to promote a healthy weight.

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Last Updated: Oct 1, 2022

Infant stool can have various colors and textures. Know what to expect in your newborn's diapers.

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Last Updated: Jan 26, 2024

Losing baby teeth is a major childhood milestone. Find out what to expect.

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Last Updated: Nov 23, 2021

Understand the differences between bacterial and viral infections.

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Last Updated: Feb 4, 2023

Weight gain can occur as a side effect of some of these medicines used for high blood pressure and other conditions.

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Last Updated: Apr 30, 2024

If you take this medicine, you may need to change your target heart rate during exercise.

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Last Updated: Dec 20, 2023

There's no evidence that bioidentical hormones are safer than standard hormone therapy for menopause.

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Last Updated: Dec 7, 2022

These disorders often occur together, and they can be a dangerous mix. Having both conditions makes mood swings, depression, violence and suicide more likely.

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Last Updated: Feb 13, 2024

Bipolar disorder in children and teenagers is possible. Finding it early and treating it can help.

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Last Updated: Apr 7, 2023

Some medications used to treat bipolar disorder can increase your appetite or cause changes in metabolism leading to weight gain.

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Last Updated: Jan 31, 2018

Bipolar I and bipolar II are different disorders, but treatment is similar.

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Last Updated: Feb 14, 2018

If you took birth control pills before you knew you were pregnant, the risks of birth defects are low.

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Last Updated: Aug 16, 2022

This possible cause of pregnancy makes withdrawal a method of birth control you cannot rely on.

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Last Updated: Aug 18, 2023

Although women are more likely to get bladder infections, men can get them, too. Learn about signs and symptoms and what could put you at risk.

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Last Updated: Dec 21, 2022

Find out more about the causes of male bladder outlet obstruction and possible next steps.

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Last Updated: May 20, 2023

Light vaginal bleeding after hysterectomy is common; it may occur for several days or several weeks.

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Last Updated: Jun 1, 2023

It's unusual to bleed from the vagina after menopause. Learn what health problems can cause it and why you need to see your health care provider.

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Last Updated: Dec 7, 2022

A Mayo Clinic specialist explains what's behind this type of early pregnancy loss.

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Last Updated: Oct 17, 2023

Blood clots during menstrual periods aren't always a cause for a concern. But passing large clots may be a sign that something is wrong.

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Last Updated: Apr 13, 2023

Consider these factors when measuring blood sugar levels with blood glucose monitors.

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Last Updated: Dec 15, 2023

Accurate blood pressure readings depend on the proper size blood pressure cuff.

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Last Updated: Apr 13, 2023

Losing weight may reduce or end the need for blood pressure medicine.

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Last Updated: Jul 6, 2023

Learn which blood pressure medicines might raise triglyceride levels.

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Last Updated: Apr 12, 2024

Blood pressure that consistently measures higher outside a medical office is called masked hypertension.

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Last Updated: Mar 23, 2023

A small difference in blood pressure readings between arms usually isn't a worry. But a large difference can be a warning sign of a health problem.

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Last Updated: Nov 22, 2022

Like many body functions, blood pressure has a daily pattern. Find out more.

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Last Updated: May 22, 2024

Blood pressure generally is higher in the winter than in the summer. Discover why.

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Last Updated: Feb 28, 2024

Unexplained changes in blood sugar levels can be the result of illness, injury, stress and hormone changes.

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Last Updated: Mar 13, 2024

These medications must be taken exactly as directed to prevent blood clots.

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Last Updated: Jun 8, 2022

Concerned about a link between breast implants and cancer? Get the facts.

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Last Updated: Aug 9, 2022

Breastfeeding and alcohol don't mix well. A Mayo Clinic specialist discusses how alcohol affects breast milk.

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Last Updated: Apr 26, 2024

Understand why babies sometimes refuse to breastfeed and what you can do about it.

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Last Updated: Apr 19, 2022

Compared with a bulging disk, a herniated disk is more likely to cause pain because it protrudes farther and is more likely to compress nerve roots.

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Last Updated: Mar 12, 2024

Even a minor injury to the scalp or forehead can cause a large lump. Find out when it's time to see a healthcare professional.

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Last Updated: Apr 24, 2024

Margarine usually tops butter for heart health. But not all margarines are created equal.

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Last Updated: Dec 1, 2022

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Learn why health care providers generally don't recommend a CA 125 test for ovarian cancer screening.

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Last Updated: Aug 25, 2022

Interested in using CBD? Here's what you need to know about the risks and benefits of using this drug.

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Last Updated: Dec 6, 2022

Find out how COVID-19 can affect dogs and cats, what you can do to protect your pet, and how to care for your pet if it becomes sick.

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Last Updated: May 14, 2024

Medicine can help people who are at risk of, diagnosed with, or have symptoms of COVID-19.

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Last Updated: May 11, 2024

Understand how underlying health conditions, the places where people live and work, and racism can affect who becomes seriously ill with COVID-19.

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Last Updated: Jul 6, 2024

Swollen lymph nodes caused by the COVID-19 vaccine can look like breast cancer on a mammogram. Find out what to do if you've got a mammogram scheduled.

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Last Updated: Apr 27, 2023

The virus that causes COVID-19 has changed over time, which has affected prevention, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19.

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Last Updated: Jun 21, 2024

For some people with diabetes, one cup of coffee may raise or lower blood sugar. Learn how caffeine can affect blood sugar.

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Last Updated: Mar 7, 2024

Caffeinated drinks can raise blood pressure in the short term. But the long-term effects on blood pressure aren't clear.

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Last Updated: Jul 9, 2024

Caffeinated drinks usually won't dehydrate you, but water is still your best option.

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Last Updated: Jan 12, 2023

Learn about the possible link between calcium supplements and heart attacks.

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Last Updated: Mar 23, 2023

In large amounts, these supplements may affect certain blood pressure medicines.

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Last Updated: Jul 9, 2024

Timing matters when taking these supplements. Learn how to take them.

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Last Updated: May 20, 2023

Learn what you can do to help lower the risk of vaginal tears during childbirth.

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Last Updated: Jan 6, 2024

Find out what the research says about links between this key vitamin and the widespread viral infection.

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Last Updated: Jul 6, 2024

Study results are mixed on whether vitamins can prevent heart disease. Find out more.

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Last Updated: Jul 21, 2023

Find out if eating whole-grain foods can lower blood pressure.

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Last Updated: May 23, 2024

Should you follow a special diet to prevent problems after gallbladder surgery?

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Last Updated: Apr 12, 2023

Candida cleanse diets that replace processed food with fresh foods improve health but don't necessarily stop yeast overgrowth.

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Last Updated: Oct 1, 2022

Carefully planned pre-trip meals, air ventilation and distractions might help prevent car sickness in children.

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Last Updated: Jun 22, 2022

Wheezing isn't always due to true asthma. Sometimes it's a sign of heart failure. Know the difference.

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Last Updated: Jan 6, 2024

Carpal tunnel exercises may be helpful, but they aren't used alone.

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Last Updated: May 15, 2024

Cellulitis — a common, potentially serious bacterial skin infection — is not directly contagious.

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Last Updated: Mar 8, 2024

Learn to treat and prevent recurrent cellulitis.

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Last Updated: Jan 25, 2023

Cervical cysts usually aren't cancerous. Some types of cervical cysts are so common that they're considered a normal feature of cervical anatomy.

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Last Updated: Jan 29, 2022

Learn what to expect if a Pap test shows cells that look different from typical cervical cells. Follow-up tests might include HPV testing and colposcopy.

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Last Updated: Jan 27, 2023

If cervical length during pregnancy shortens too soon, there might be an increased risk of preterm labor.

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Last Updated: May 28, 2022

Learn more about this debated treatment for heart disease.

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Last Updated: Jun 13, 2023

Chemotherapy and sex aren't mutually exclusive, as long as you're feeling up to it.

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Last Updated: Feb 9, 2023

Chemotherapy side effects may include a risk of heart problems, including weakened heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) and heart rhythm problems (arrhythmia).

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Last Updated: Oct 11, 2022

Understand the risks posed by chickenpox during pregnancy.

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Last Updated: Jul 9, 2024

Concerned about your child's growth? Find out how you can estimate your child's adult height.

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Last Updated: Mar 2, 2022

A high cholesterol level is unhealthy — rarely, very low cholesterol may pose risks, too.

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Last Updated: Nov 17, 2022

Non-HDL cholesterol may be more important than cholesterol ratio.

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Last Updated: Jan 12, 2024

Home cholesterol test kits are often as accurate as the test a health care professional uses, but the quality of results can depend on how well you follow the directions for the test.

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Last Updated: May 23, 2023

Chronic bladder infection can be a painful, frustrating problem. Learn about causes and treatments.

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Last Updated: Oct 26, 2023

Diarrhea is fairly common after gallbladder removal. Find out what to expect.

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Last Updated: Dec 12, 2023

Despite what you might think, cigars aren't that different from cigarettes. Like cigarettes, cigars contain nicotine, tobacco and cancer-causing chemicals.

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Last Updated: Dec 15, 2021

The term "clinical depression" means severe, persistent depression. It's also called major depression or major depressive disorder.

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Last Updated: May 13, 2017

This oil has been touted by some as a cure for hypothyroidism. Truth or hype?

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Last Updated: Nov 10, 2022

This drink is promoted as "super hydrating." But is it really any better than plain water?

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Last Updated: Jul 12, 2023

Has coffee gotten a bum rap? Can it be part of a healthy diet?

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Last Updated: Mar 19, 2022

Plain coffee has only a few calories. But the calories jump up when adding extras.

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Last Updated: Jun 7, 2024

Some viruses are more resilient than you may think. Learn more about how they spread and how to protect yourself.

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Last Updated: Feb 24, 2024

Although colds and seasonal allergies share some of the same symptoms, they are very different diseases. Learn how to tell the difference.

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Last Updated: Feb 13, 2024

Colds mean extra thick and sticky mucus, but dairy milk doesn't make phlegm worse.

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Last Updated: Jun 13, 2023

Colloidal silver supplements are often promoted as cure-alls, but evidence of effectiveness is lacking. Side effects range from change in skin color to organ damage.

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Last Updated: Oct 5, 2022

Some groups recommend people over 75 may consider stopping colon cancer screening. Not everyone agrees. Learn about your colon cancer screening options.

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Last Updated: Dec 6, 2023

Get the facts before you try this technique that's popular among some people who practice alternative medicine, who claim it has many health benefits.

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Last Updated: May 10, 2024

Whether your child's concussion is mild or severe, allow time to recover.

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Last Updated: May 20, 2023

Coping with anxiety is a challenge. Eating habits may play a role.

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Last Updated: May 24, 2017

Pain is common after mastectomy and other breast cancer operations. Find out what causes it and learn about treatment options.

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Last Updated: Dec 7, 2022

The best treatment for coronary artery disease depends on the circumstances.

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Last Updated: Sep 1, 2023

This sudden, temporary squeezing of an artery reduces blood flow to the heart. Know the causes and treatment.

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Last Updated: Jul 9, 2024

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a virus that spreads between people. Find out how to protect yourself and those close to you.

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Last Updated: Feb 20, 2024

If you cough more than usual after you give up cigarettes, find out what it might mean and when to call the doctor.

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Last Updated: Feb 23, 2023

Craving and chewing ice (pagophagia) is often associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia.

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Last Updated: Oct 21, 2023

Some research suggests that curcumin may help prevent or treat cancer.

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Last Updated: Jan 5, 2024

D

Degenerative changes in the spine visible on X-rays indicate osteoarthritis of the spine.

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Last Updated: Jan 23, 2024

Learn the causes and types of these diseases that affect the protective covering of nerves, which include multiple sclerosis. Also learn how they're treated.

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Last Updated: Apr 27, 2024

Cleaning between your teeth every day is an important part of good oral health.

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Last Updated: Dec 6, 2022

Follow these best practices to keep your removable partial or full dentures clean, free from stains and comfortable.

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Last Updated: Jan 19, 2024

Depression and anxiety commonly occur together and have similar treatments: counseling (psychotherapy) or medication, such as antidepressants, or both.

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Last Updated: Jun 2, 2017

Do detox foot pads really draw toxins out of your body while you sleep?

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Last Updated: May 24, 2022

Diabetes and depression can occur together. Here's what you need to know.

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Last Updated: Apr 9, 2024

It's a common myth that you shouldn't eat certain foods if you have diabetes.

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Last Updated: Aug 31, 2022

Generally, there's no advantage to substituting honey for sugar in a diabetes eating plan.

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Last Updated: Jul 8, 2023

Learn what cinnamon's role may be as part of a diabetes treatment plan.

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Last Updated: Apr 4, 2023

How to care for your liver if you have diabetes.

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Last Updated: Sep 23, 2022

What the change in the research definition of Alzheimer's disease means for you.

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Last Updated: Nov 4, 2022

Diet soda may help you cut calories, but other low-calorie options abound.

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Last Updated: Nov 3, 2022

Digestion takes about two to five days, depending on your system.

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Last Updated: Dec 31, 2019

Baby teeth can become discolored for many reasons, including inadequate brushing, medications and illness.

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Last Updated: Feb 25, 2022

Find out what causes discolored semen.

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Last Updated: Nov 29, 2022

This treatment for high blood pressure can raise the risk of arthritis. Find out why and what you can do about it.

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Last Updated: Jul 9, 2024

These medicines are often used to treat high blood pressure and swelling. Diuretics may lower potassium.

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Last Updated: Apr 25, 2024

Contrary to popular belief, no specific foods are known to trigger bouts of this condition.

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Last Updated: Jul 9, 2024

How is an infrared sauna different from a traditional sauna? Light provides the heat.

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Last Updated: Jun 11, 2022

You know vitamin C helps fight the common cold. But did you know that vitamin C might also help improve your mood?

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Last Updated: Oct 8, 2022

AFib is a common heart disorder. Sometimes it is inherited. Learn about all the risk factors.

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Last Updated: May 15, 2024

Learn how the risk of getting this common heart rhythm condition can increase with age.

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Last Updated: Jul 13, 2023

Have you heard about prickly pear cactus? Find out about some surprising health benefits of this versatile plant.

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Last Updated: Dec 6, 2022

Soy foods reduce the risk of breast cancer, but more research is needed to determine whether soy supplements are equally beneficial.

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Last Updated: Dec 7, 2022

Wondering whether sunscreen expires? Get the facts about how long sunscreen lasts.

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Last Updated: Jan 9, 2024

A Doppler ultrasound measures blood flow and pressure in blood vessels.

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Last Updated: Dec 5, 2023

Your hepatitis C infection has been cured, but is it safe to drink alcohol again?

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Last Updated: Oct 6, 2023

To ease dry mouth, chew sugar-free gum or suck on sugar-free hard candy to keep saliva flowing. Limit caffeine and don't use tobacco. Sip water regularly.

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Last Updated: May 27, 2023

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Early signs of the disease can include fever, fatigue and swollen lymph glands. Learn more.

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Last Updated: Jan 11, 2023

Early miscarriage is usually caused by an abnormality with the baby — not maternal stress.

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Last Updated: Jun 5, 2024

Despite claims of benefits, eating the placenta after giving birth can be harmful.

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Last Updated: Jul 9, 2024

Ebola virus: A Mayo Clinic expert explains how the virus spreads

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Last Updated: Mar 24, 2023

A diluted bleach bath may help treat chronic eczema.

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Last Updated: Jun 26, 2024

Get the latest information about eggs, cholesterol and heart disease.

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Last Updated: Mar 7, 2024

This measurement, commonly taken during an echocardiogram, shows how well the heart is pumping. Know what results mean.

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Last Updated: Feb 17, 2023

Understand if an elective abortion can affect your fertility or future pregnancies.

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Last Updated: Aug 3, 2022

There is no cure for this disease of the nervous system, but promising research offers hope for new ways to slow and perhaps reverse the effects of this disease.

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Last Updated: Jul 3, 2024

Lifestyle factors such as diet appear to play a role in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). See what lifestyle changes may help with symptoms.

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Last Updated: Jul 2, 2022

Enterovirus D68 and parechovirus infections can lead to serious illness among children. Know the symptoms and what you can do.

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Last Updated: Mar 2, 2023

Play it smart. Ease up on exercise if you have a cold.

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Last Updated: Nov 18, 2023

Reduce your multiple sclerosis symptoms through exercise.

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Last Updated: Apr 27, 2024

Find out how much exercise you need and how to get it.

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Last Updated: Jul 26, 2023

Breakthrough bleeding is more common with continuous and extended-cycle birth control pills, but usually decreases with time.

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Last Updated: Dec 7, 2022

Eye dilation is part of a comprehensive eye exam. How often you need it depends on your age and health risks.

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Last Updated: Jan 6, 2022

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Fainting during or immediately after urination, called micturition syncope, is a rare occurrence in healthy individuals.

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Last Updated: Apr 23, 2024

Here's what to consider after a fall during pregnancy, including when to seek medical help.

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Last Updated: Dec 5, 2023

Pregnancy may be possible with one fallopian tube.

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Last Updated: Feb 9, 2023

Being on a fasting diet some of the time may have heart-health benefits. Find out more.

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Last Updated: Jul 11, 2024

Learn tips to become a more-confident public speaker

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Last Updated: May 17, 2017

Not all women have orgasms with vaginal penetration during sex. Most women need stimulation of the clitoris to climax.

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Last Updated: Dec 7, 2022

Fiber supplements are one way to add fiber to the diet. Here are some tips for using them safely.

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Last Updated: Jun 13, 2023

Nutrition experts recommend ground flaxseed over whole flaxseed. Find out why.

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Last Updated: Jan 31, 2023

Influenza masks and hand hygiene might help protect healthcare workers from flu (influenza).

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Last Updated: Jun 21, 2024

Will you be pregnant during flu season? A flu shot is safe — and it protects both you and your baby.

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Last Updated: Sep 1, 2023

The flu shot protects against influenza, which is different from the stomach flu, also called gastroenteritis.

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Last Updated: Feb 28, 2024

Know the latest recommendations for children's flu vaccines.

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Last Updated: Jun 20, 2024

See a healthcare professional if you are at high risk for complications from flu.

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Last Updated: Sep 15, 2023

If you have egg allergy, you still may be able to receive the flu vaccine.

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Last Updated: Oct 24, 2023

Persistently foamy urine can be a sign of protein in your urine (proteinuria) and could be an indicator of kidney disease.

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Last Updated: Jan 14, 2023

Might you have to swear off milkshakes for good? Follow the symptom clues to find out whether you possibly have a food allergy or a food intolerance.

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Last Updated: Feb 28, 2024

Prevent food poisoning with these food safety tips for handling and reheating leftover food.

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Last Updated: May 14, 2024

Swelling of the leg or foot while flying is common and usually harmless.

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Last Updated: Oct 20, 2023

Results from free blood pressure monitoring machines aren't always accurate.

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Last Updated: Apr 12, 2024

Some studies have suggested that frequent ejaculation may reduce the risk of prostate cancer. But other research hasn't supported this idea.

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Last Updated: Jun 14, 2024

This type of receding hairline, which primarily affects older women, is treatable. The earlier you talk with your doctor about it, the better your chance of preventing permanent baldness.

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Last Updated: Jul 17, 2023

Fructose is a sugar found naturally in fruits, fruit juices, some vegetables and honey. Learn which foods to avoid if you have fructose intolerance.

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Last Updated: Jan 9, 2024

Understand how fundal height is measured and what it means.

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Last Updated: Mar 7, 2024

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Certain medicines can make symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) worse. Learn more.

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Last Updated: Jan 11, 2024

Noninsulin drugs for diabetes improve blood sugar control and may also support weight loss.

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Last Updated: Jun 29, 2022

A gallbladder cleanse is a popular alternative remedy for gallstones. But does it work?

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Last Updated: Feb 28, 2024

The size of gallbladder polyps can be a useful predictor of whether they're cancerous.

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Last Updated: Dec 6, 2023

It is nearly impossible to get genital herpes from a toilet seat.

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Last Updated: Nov 11, 2022

Glucosamine manufacturers claim their products slow or stop cartilage damage in osteoarthritis.

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Last Updated: Mar 5, 2024

Some people with diabetes use the glycemic index as a guide in selecting foods.

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Last Updated: Jan 6, 2024

Some medicines don't mix with grapefruit and other citrus fruits. Learn what's safe.

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Last Updated: Jul 13, 2023

Grass-fed beef may have heart-health benefits that conventional beef doesn't. Find out more.

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Last Updated: Jan 12, 2024

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Learn about the risks of this dangerous diet.

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Last Updated: Jun 4, 2024

HER2-positive breast cancer tends to be more aggressive than other types of breast cancer. Treatments that target HER2 are very effective.

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Last Updated: Apr 9, 2024

Learn what types of cancer human papillomavirus can cause and how you can lower your risk.

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Last Updated: Jul 9, 2024

This condition is a common problem, but rarely serious enough to disrupt your routine.

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Last Updated: Feb 11, 2023

Here's help with preventing or easing this common type of pain while you're pregnant.

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Last Updated: Jul 9, 2024

It's possible that secondhand smoke can irritate the arteries and increase the risk of a heart attack.

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Last Updated: Mar 29, 2024

Although heart tumors do occur, the vast majority of them are noncancerous (benign).

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Last Updated: Apr 9, 2024

Many people with heart failure worry that sex might harm their hearts. How do you know when sex is OK? Cardiac rehab and counseling can help.

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Last Updated: Jul 12, 2024

A normal resting heart rate for adults ranges from 60 to 100 beats per minute. A heart rate above or below that may signal a problem.

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Last Updated: Oct 8, 2022

Acid-controlling medicines may do more than prevent heartburn. They also may keep vitamin B-12 from being absorbed.

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Last Updated: Jul 9, 2024

Heavy periods may cause iron deficiency anemia. Folic acid supplements can't treat that.

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Last Updated: Aug 25, 2023

Know how to relieve painful, swollen veins in the anus and rectum during pregnancy.

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Last Updated: Apr 29, 2022

Although hepatitis C is highly contagious, the risk of sexual transmission is very low.

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Last Updated: Dec 1, 2023

End-stage complications of hepatitis C include liver failure and liver cancer.

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Last Updated: Apr 6, 2024

Herbal treatment for anxiety: A Mayo Clinic expert discusses safety and effectiveness.

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Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024

Among cold medicines, decongestants cause the most concern for people who have high blood pressure.

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Last Updated: Apr 12, 2023

High cholesterol in children can lead to narrowed and hardened arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease later in life.

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Last Updated: Oct 8, 2022

Can cinnamon lower cholesterol?

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Last Updated: Mar 14, 2023

High-dose flu vaccines are flu vaccines for older people.

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Last Updated: Oct 12, 2022

High-dose vitamin C has been touted by some as an effective alternative cancer treatment.

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Considering a high-protein diet for weight loss? Understand the precautions first.

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Learn how types of lymphomas are determined using lab tests to examine cancer cells.

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A study in children with the common cold suggests that honey may help calm coughs.

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This habit isn't safer than smoking cigarettes. Find out why.

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Antibody testing shows whether you've had the COVID-19 virus in the past. It's not the same as testing to see whether you have the virus now.

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Wonder how many hours of sleep are enough? A Mayo Clinic specialist offers guidelines.

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Learn self-care tips for healing cracked heels.

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Learn how to treat the tiny, painful cracks that can form on the thumb tip when your skin is very dry.

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Knowing how much saturated fat is in the foods you eat can help you meet your health and nutrition goals.

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Learn what you can do at home if your ear new piercing becomes infected.

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Learn simple remedies to easing your baby's discomfort from the pain and irritation of this skin rash.

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If you can’t breathe out well, as in COPD, air may get trapped inside your lungs. As you breathe in more air over time, your lungs get too big and stiff.

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Last Updated: Nov 23, 2023

Hyperinsulinemia often is associated with type 2 diabetes.

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A sudden rise in blood pressure over 180/120 mm Hg is considered a medical emergency, or crisis. It can lead to a stroke. Know the symptoms.

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For women, there's sometimes a link between having an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) and infertility.

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There's no evidence that eating or avoiding certain foods will help the thyroid work better in people with underactive thyroid.

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Last Updated: Aug 18, 2023

Hypothyroidism symptoms can vary, but eye problems aren't usually a concern.

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Calcium supplements can interfere with how the body absorbs medications used to treat hypothyroidism.

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Hypothyroidism can cause damage to peripheral nerves and can lead to conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome.

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Hypothyroidism can cause muscle and joint problems, such as pain and stiffness.

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Although iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism, this deficiency is rare in the United States.

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Implantation bleeding is a common early pregnancy symptom. Understand why it happens.

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With time and dedication, breastfeeding without pregnancy (induced lactation) might be possible.

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Worried about infant constipation? A Mayo Clinic specialist explains how to treat it.

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Infant growth rates depend on various factors. Consider what's typical during baby's first year.

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Waking up in the middle of the night and not being able to get back to sleep is a common form of insomnia. Here's how to fall asleep again.

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Intermittent fasting isn't new, but it's gaining followers. What's the appeal?

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Using a home sperm test to check your fertility may not provide a clear answer.

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Depression is common in people with rheumatoid arthritis. If it isn't treated, depression may contribute to worsening of rheumatoid arthritis symptoms.

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Both the top and bottom numbers in blood pressure readings hold clues about your health. But if just the top number is high, it might be a concern.

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Learn more about isometric exercises that contract a particular muscle or group of muscles.

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Learn about the pros and cons of extracting the juice from fresh fruits and vegetables.

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Many factors may influence the decision to withdraw from kidney dialysis.

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Kidney donation can save a life, but it's important to understand the risks.

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Does kombucha tea live up to its reputation as a health tonic?

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This supplement may help some people lower their blood pressure. Learn who might benefit and who should stay away from it.

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Lack of sleep can affect your immune system. Here's what you need to know.

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Laryngospasm is a brief spasm of the vocal cords, which temporarily interrupts breathing.

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Late-night snacks aren't necessarily off-limits with diabetes, but healthy choices won't leave you with high blood sugar in the morning.

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Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a slow-developing form of diabetes.

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A Mayo Clinic specialist shares prevention and treatment tips for leg cramps during pregnancy.

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Last Updated: Apr 12, 2023

New, persistent leg pain or aching may indicate an underlying circulation problem.

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Learn when this condition that causes a lacy pattern on the skin is simply a result of being chilled or something more serious.

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Occasionally, liver cysts can cause pain and discomfort in the upper abdomen.

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Age-related loss of sex drive is normal, but sometimes an underlying condition is at play.

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Aging can play a role in the loss of taste and smell — but not always.

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Delivery, amnioinfusion and drinking more fluids might be recommended when amniotic fluid is found to be low.

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Last Updated: Aug 9, 2022

For older adults, low blood sodium, known as hyponatremia, can cause death if left untreated.

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Last Updated: May 16, 2023

If you have kidney disease, you may need to limit how much phosphorus you eat or drink each day. A dietitian can help you create a custom meal plan.

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Lung nodules are common. Most aren't cancer. Find out what tests might be recommended if you have a lung nodule.

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A low-tyramine diet is important for anyone taking MAOIs.

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Older gadolinium contrast agents used with MRI posed a risk for people with severe kidney failure. Newer versions are much safer.

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Enlarged red blood cells (macrocytosis) can be due to many factors.

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Find out what ingredients pharmacists combine for this treatment for mouth sores caused by chemotherapy and other cancer treatments.

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Male masturbation has little effect on sperm count or quality.

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Latest Mayo Clinic mammogram guidelines for breast cancer screening.

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Last Updated: May 23, 2023

Marijuana and depression seem to go hand in hand for some people, but there's no clear evidence that marijuana directly causes depression.

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Is it possible to get measles from someone else if you've been vaccinated?

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Last Updated: Oct 6, 2022

Melatonin is generally safe for short-term use but can cause side effects.

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For many women, menopause and high blood pressure seem to go together. Discover why.

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Some forms of hormone therapy prescribed to ease hot flashes and other menopause symptoms may cause vaginal bleeding. Learn more.

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Combining migraine medicines and antidepressants may pose several concerns.

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Certain antidepressants are used in migraine treatment. Learn more about these medications.

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Migraines can be associated with certain gastrointestinal problems. Learn more.

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Migraines — Are they triggered by weather changes?

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The term "ministroke" typically refers to a transient ischemic attack.

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Moldy cheese may be unappetizing, but is it unsafe?

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Find out more about the rare mpox, or monkeypox, viral infection, the possible symptoms in humans, treatment options and how to prevent getting or spreading the virus.

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The Epstein-Barr virus sometimes causes a disease known as mono. Learn who is at risk and what the symptoms are.

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Mono can return in some rare cases. Learn why that happens.

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Monosodium glutamate (MSG) can trigger headaches and other symptoms in some people.

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Visible mucus in stool can have a variety of causes, but they're not always serious.

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Seizures occur more often in people with multiple sclerosis than in the general population.

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Multivitamins: Are they good insurance for young children?

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Myofascial release, a form of manual therapy, may help reduce back pain.

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Common pain medications such as ibuprofen or naproxen sodium may increase the risk of heart attack and stroke.

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Vertical nail ridges are common and often become more prominent with age.

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Narrow stools may be a sign that the colon is narrowing or has a blockage.

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Breast enhancement supplements haven't been proved effective, and they could cause side effects.

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For some people, certain herbal and dietary supplements seem to help with depression, but more studies are needed on their effectiveness and side effects.

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Morning sickness is common during pregnancy. Understand what nausea and vomiting might mean while you're pregnant.

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Nervous breakdown isn't a medical term. It most often means a mental health crisis that affects your ability to meet your own needs and do daily tasks.

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Learn more about this container designed to rinse debris or mucus from the nasal cavity.

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Some Neurontin side effects can be troubling and require evaluation by your health care provider.

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Get the facts about when to wake a sleeping baby for a feeding.

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When niacin is taken as prescribed for high cholesterol, overdose is unlikely.

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"Alarm clock" (hypnic) headaches wake people up. But other nighttime headaches also can disrupt sleep. Relief begins with determining the cause.

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Nighttime panic attacks can cause sweating, rapid heart rate, trembling, shortness of breath, heavy breathing, flushing or chills. Learn about treatment.

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Occipital nerve stimulation is a relatively new procedure to treat chronic headache disorders.

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Flashes of light, zigzagging patterns and temporary blindness — what does it all mean?

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This essential fatty acid is found in certain foods and is recommended as part of a healthy diet.

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Learn about the roles everyone plays in opioid stewardship, safety and overdose.

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You know what M.D. means, but what does D.O. mean? What's different and what's alike between these two kinds of health care providers?

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Joint replacement of the hip, knee and shoulder can be done safely as outpatient surgery. Most people can go home the same day as the procedure.

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Surgery to remove your uterus may affect your risk of ovarian cancer, depending on the type of procedure you had.

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Certain types of ovarian cysts can contribute to fertility problems.

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Trying to get pregnant? Learn about symptoms of ovulation

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Last Updated: Jul 9, 2024

Ozone air purifiers don't reduce asthma symptoms. In fact, they can make asthma worse.

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A number of factors can cause PSA levels to rise after surgery for an enlarged prostate.

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Last Updated: Dec 20, 2022

Depression can cause unexplained physical symptoms, such as headaches. Chronic pain can cause problems that lead to depression, such as poor sleep.

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Doctors recommend regular cervical cancer screening whether you've had sex or not.

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Unfortunately, there is no standard or routine screening test for ovarian cancer.

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Learn about the signs of this indirect way of expressing negative feelings.

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Know the signs and symptoms of a penis fracture.

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Last Updated: Jul 29, 2022

Rarely, inhaling petroleum jelly for prolonged periods can cause lung inflammation (lipoid pneumonia).

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Phantosmia is often due to a head injury or upper respiratory infection.

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This prescription medicine can help with weight loss when combined with a healthy diet and exercise.

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You may be worried about phenylalanine because of a warning on diet soda. Find out why the warning is there.

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Many parents wonder how long pink eye (conjunctivitis) is contagious. Find out.

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Plugged ears are usually a mild, temporary problem. Learn about potential causes and treatments.

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This combination pill contains small doses of several commonly prescribed heart disease medicines.

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Poppy seed tea may be used as a natural pain reliever. The key is the opioids in the seed coating, which may be dangerous.

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Use these tips to help someone cope with stress from a traumatic event, whether it's acute stress disorder (ASD) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

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Prednisone is a powerful medication. Find out why it's so important to taper off your dosage gradually.

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Learn about self-care and safe medications to treat acne during pregnancy.

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Pregnancy constipation is common. Know how to safely treat it.

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Extreme moodiness, intense sadness or marked irritability in the days before your period — along with your usual PMS symptoms — could be PMDD.

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Prenatal vitamins: Why they might not be suitable if you're not pregnant.

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Probiotics are foods or supplements that contain 'good' bacteria that might help treat or prevent illness. Should they be part of your diet?

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Prostate cancer can spread (metastasize) just about anywhere in the body, but it's most likely to spread to the lymph nodes and bones.

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Find out what your PSA level may mean for your prostate cancer prognosis.

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Some men with prostatitis have pain with ejaculation or sexual activity.

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Protein shakes aren't a magic bullet for weight loss. Here's why.

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Pseudoaneurysm may be a complication of cardiac catheterization.

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Pulse pressure may be a strong predictor of heart problems, especially for older adults.

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Reactive hypoglycemia is low blood sugar that happens after eating.

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These infections that keep coming back can be hard to treat. Here's what to know.

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Tonsillectomy may sometimes be needed in children who have recurring strep throat infections.

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Although a renal diet restricts protein, you still must eat some protein every day.

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Repeat C-sections are common — but each C-section is generally more complicated than the last.

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This device teaches slow, deep breathing, which can reduce blood pressure.

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Rhabdomyolysis is a rare but potentially life-threatening side effect of statins.

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Although rheumatoid arthritis is primarily a joint disease, it occasionally affects the eyes.

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Although rheumatoid arthritis primarily affects the joints, it can also affect the lungs.

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This deadly poison comes from castor bean plants. The same beans are used to make castor oil.

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Constantly craving salt could signal a medical condition, such as Addison's disease.

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Learn how to tell apart these common conditions of the scalp, both of which cause inflamed, scaly skin.

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Last Updated: Sep 24, 2022

Should you take health claims about sea salt with a grain of salt? What makes it different from table salt?

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Second pregnancies don't always come easily. Learn about possible causes for secondary infertility and when to seek professional help.

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How to take care of yourself at home when you have the flu.

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Semen allergy, also called seminal plasma hypersensitivity, is a rare condition that can be easily misdiagnosed. Learn about symptoms and possible treatments.

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Know what causes sensitive teeth and learn about effective treatments.

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Close contact, including sexual activity, is a risk factor for COVID-19. Find out how to lower your risk of getting the COVID-19 virus from a sexual partner.

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Vaginal infection makes intercourse painful and weakens your resistance to sexually transmitted infections. Consider waiting.

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Contrary to popular belief, shaving unwanted hair doesn't make it grow back thicker.

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Generally, it's best to avoid alcohol during the course of shingles treatment.

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A shingles vaccine uses only part of the varicella-zoster virus, so you can't infect others.

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People who are age 50 and older should get this vaccine to prevent shingles.

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If you have A-fib, you may need to avoid certain foods or drinks. Know when and why you may need to change your diet.

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This type of heart attack occurs with few, if any, symptoms. Find out more.

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Understand the problems that may happen when a silicone breast implant leaks.

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Sometimes the cause of a toothache isn't a tooth problem, but a sinus problem.

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Sitting for long periods — such as in front of the TV or at a desk — appears to increase risk of death from cardiovascular disease and cancer.

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Antihistamines can be somewhat effective as a sleep aid — but only for occasional sleeplessness.

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Too little sleep affects not only energy levels but also heart health.

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Cancer cells are classified by how they look under a microscope. Learn common terms used to describe cancer cells.

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Soy alone doesn't lower cholesterol enough to make a big difference. But eating soy can still be healthy.

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For most people with hypothyroidism, it's okay to have some soy. But the timing makes a difference.

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This term is sometimes used to refer to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) — but how accurate is it?

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After ejaculation, the life span of sperm depends on the circumstances.

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Statins can cause muscle injury in some people. But can they also trigger ALS?

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Depending on which virus causes your stomach illness, you can be contagious from a few days to two weeks or more.

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Stool color is usually a result of diet and is only rarely a concern.

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Strep throat in young children is uncommon, but it's possible. Learn about symptoms.

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Learn how stress and hair loss can be related.

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Sulfa allergy: A Mayo Clinic expert discusses which medications are likely to cause problems.

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Sundowning isn't a disease. It's a symptom that often occurs in people with dementia.

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Your body can't digest chewing gum. So what happens when you swallow it?

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Tailbone pain can have many causes and treatments.

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Energy drink ingredients can cause concern for some who consume these beverages.

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Ice is recommended for sudden injuries to tendons. But heat might be a better choice for chronic tendinitis caused by overuse.

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Feelings of worry and self-doubt can interfere with how well you do on tests. Here's what you can do to lower your anxiety.

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A Mayo Clinic specialist discusses the relationship between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer.

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This type of hormonal therapy may boost sex drive for some women, but its long-term safety is unclear.

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For adults, tetanus shots are recommended every 10 years.

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Take steps to prevent this early-morning increase in blood sugar.

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Fragile or thin skin is a fairly common problem, especially in older adults.

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Last Updated: Nov 1, 2023

Thyroid disease can affect mood, but those symptoms are rarely the only evidence of thyroid disease.

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A Mayo Clinic expert discusses using thyroid guards during mammograms to reduce the risk of thyroid cancer from radiation.

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Sometimes this test is done to help figure out the cause of thyroid disease.

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Last Updated: Jul 9, 2024

Ringing in the ears, also known as tinnitus, has many possible causes, such as taking antidepressants.

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A Mayo Clinic specialist describes typical speech development between the ages of 2 and 3.

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Last Updated: Mar 4, 2023

Vitamin C is an essential nutrient, but too much carries its own risks.

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A Mayo Clinic expert explains the differences and similarities between these two types of growths and how doctors determine if they're cancerous.

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Last Updated: Jul 22, 2023

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Know how to wash and care for your child's uncircumcised penis.

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Last Updated: Mar 10, 2022

If you're underweight and not happy about it, try these tips to help you achieve your goal weight.

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Last Updated: Jan 11, 2023

Undigested food in stool generally isn't a problem unless it's accompanied by other symptoms.

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Type O negative is sometimes called the universal blood donor type.

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COVID-19 can cause a wide variety of symptoms, some more common than others. Learn about how COVID-19 can make you feel.

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Like LDL cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol is considered a type of 'bad' cholesterol.

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Last Updated: Jun 17, 2022

Find out which vaccinations you need while pregnant and which ones to stay away from.

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Last Updated: Feb 27, 2024

Low-dose estrogen therapy, vaginal moisturizers and vaginal lubricants are among treatments for this condition and the discomfort it causes.

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Valerian — Can this sleep aid help you sleep better?

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Vaping during pregnancy can expose your baby to nicotine.

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Although switching to a vegetarian diet won't cure diabetes, it may offer some benefits.

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Learn about medicines to treat problems with sexual arousal or sexual desire in women.

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Find out why you should not use this ointment to ease a stuffy nose during a cold.

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Low levels of vitamin B-12 and other B vitamins may be linked to depression, but more research is needed.

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Vitamin B-12 injections — A weight-loss shot sounds appealing, but does it work?

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Some research suggests that vitamin D may reduce the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS).

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What are the risks of too little vitamin D?

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Last Updated: Oct 7, 2022

Too little vitamin D is bad for the bones, but what about the heart? Learn how a low vitamin D level may affect blood pressure.

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Last Updated: Apr 7, 2023

A Mayo Clinic specialist explains why, when and how to give your baby vitamin D.

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Understand the risks of too much vitamin D, including a toxic reaction.

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Last Updated: Mar 22, 2022

Can vitamin supplements improve MS symptoms?

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Vocal cord dysfunction and asthma cause similar symptoms, but they're not the same. Find out the difference between the two.

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Vulvar varicosities can cause discomfort during pregnancy. Understand what causes this form of varicose veins and learn how to get relief.

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Last Updated: Jul 22, 2022

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Walking pneumonia is a mild bacterial infection that resembles a cold. It usually does not require bed rest or a hospital stay.

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Walking and a healthy diet can put you on the path to weight management.

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Certain foods and drinks may affect how the blood thinner warfarin works. Know which foods and beverages are OK when you're taking the medicine.

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Warm-mist and cool-mist humidifiers are equally effective in humidifying the air.

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Drinking plenty of water helps keep your digestive system on track.

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Last Updated: May 25, 2022

Interested in natural diuretics for fluid retention and weight gain? You may be better off watching your diet.

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Last Updated: Sep 21, 2022

Opioids are a broad group of medicines used to relieve pain. Although these medicines are effective, they can lead to addiction. Take them only as directed.

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Some bacteria and other germs are resistant to most types of antibiotics and medicines that treat them. Find out the risks and how to prevent infections.

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Find out more about BPA, a chemical used in some plastics and resins, and explore options for reducing your exposure.

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Know when new heart failure symptoms require a call to a healthcare professional or an ER visit. An action plan can guide self-care.

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Learn more about this mosquito-borne virus — found in Africa, Asia, India, and parts of Europe and the Americas — that causes fever and severe joint pain.

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Tobacco smoke creates toxic residue that clings to walls, carpets, clothes and other surfaces.

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H1N1 flu is a subcategory of influenza A.

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When should you brush your teeth? Learn how to protect your oral health.

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Blood pressure that measures high during a health checkup could be a risk factor for high blood pressure. Find out more.

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A small white patch on skin may have several causes, including eczema, psoriasis and vitiligo.

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White stool may mean a serious liver problem. Learn about causes.

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Whole-body vibration — Don't give up regular exercise and a healthy diet.

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Hepatitis C vaccine development is far from straightforward, but experimental vaccines are under study.

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You may not need your wisdom teeth taken out if they're healthy and in the right place. But if they cause problems, your dentist may suggest removing them.

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Devices that measure blood pressure at the wrist may be an option for some people. Know how to position a wrist monitor properly.

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Learn when an X-ray during pregnancy might cause harm and how to avoid it.

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Yeast infections are common during pregnancy. Over-the-counter treatments are usually safe.

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Yeast infections can occur in men, causing inflammation of the penis (balanitis). Learn what signs and symptoms could mean you have a yeast infection.

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This herbal tea may help you feel more alert and focused, but find out what the possible health risks are.

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Everyone's heard of taking zinc for colds. But does it really work?

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