Understand how pregnancy or early motherhood might affect cognition.
Better research is needed to find out if limiting certain foods or food additives will help reduce hyperactivity and ADHD symptoms.
Abnormal sperm morphology may be a contributing factor in male infertility.
Some research suggests that acetyl-L-carnitine may improve fatigue associated with multiple sclerosis, but more study is needed.
Acid reflux and GERD are closely related, but the terms aren't necessarily interchangeable.
Learn what mistakes to avoid when caring for your skin with acne.
Various procedures can improve acne scars, but no single treatment is best for everyone.
Acupuncture for back pain — Can acupuncture treatments relieve back pain?
Most cases of acute bronchitis are caused by viruses and are contagious. Learn ways to reduce your risk of catching viruses that can cause bronchitis.
Over-the-counter drugs may provide some relief from the symptoms of acute sinusitis.
Adrenal fatigue is a lay term used to describe a mild form of adrenal insufficiency caused by chronic stress.
Adult bed-wetting is uncommon and requires evaluation by a doctor. Learn about possible causes.
After a flood, don't eat foods or take medications that have come into contact with flood water or contaminated water.
An unsteady gait is a common side effect of aging. Here's what you can do about it.
Concerned about changes in your skin? Here's what you need to know about aging skin.
Consider these guidelines if you need to fly while you're pregnant.
Planning for air travel with an infant? Know how air travel can affect a newborn's ears and breathing, and what you can do to keep your baby comfortable.
Albuterol side effects — Managing reactions to quick-relief asthma medication.
Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels.
Health claims about alkaline water abound, but plain water is usually best.
Find out what allergy medications can help you manage allergies during pregnancy.
The terms 'Alzheimer's disease' and 'dementia' are often used to mean the same thing — but here's the real difference between them.
Regular exercise may help in preventing Alzheimer's disease and improving cognitive function.
Study results have been mixed on this potential future treatment.
Alzheimer's prevention: Strategies for staying physically and mentally fit may be most effective.
Alzheimer's — Learn about the benefits of the Mediterranean diet.
Some research indicates a link between head injuries and Alzheimer's disease. So what's your risk?
Zolpidem (Ambien) for insomnia is generally safe in the short term, but some people who take it may behave dangerously, such as driving while not awake.
Try these prevention and treatment tips for ankle swelling during pregnancy.
Alcohol doesn't lower the effectiveness of most antibiotics. But it's still a good idea to avoid alcohol while taking antibiotics.
Learn about common types of antibiotics used during pregnancy and their safety.
Antidepressant withdrawal is possible if you stop taking an antidepressant abruptly — but it's generally preventable.
Combining antidepressants and alcohol can worsen depression and cause other problems.
An antidepressant isn't always a direct cause of weight gain. Learn the other causes of weight gain when taking antidepressants and how to manage weight.
Sexual side effects are common with antidepressants in both men and women, but there are options to prevent or reduce such side effects.
Anxiety can cause dramatic, temporary increases in blood pressure.
Aortic valve calcification — once thought a harmless condition — may be a sign of heart valve disease.
Proponents tout apple cider vinegar as a weight-loss aid, but there's little proof that it works.
Arcus senilis is a gray arc sometimes visible around the cornea in older adults.
Artificial sweeteners, also called sugar substitutes, offer the sweetness of sugar without the calories.
Not all eyedrops are the same. Here's what to consider when choosing artificial tears for dry eyes.
A Mayo Clinic specialist explains what you need to know about taking aspirin if you're pregnant.
Asthma and acid reflux: A Mayo Clinic expert discusses how acid reflux can worsen asthma.
Can what you eat affect your asthma? Learn how healthy eating habits may reduce asthma symptoms.
Replacing carpet with hard flooring may be a good idea if you have asthma.
Atypical cells appear abnormal, but they aren't necessarily cancerous.
Children with autism spectrum disorder often have other health issues, including problems related to digestion.
There's no evidence that restrictive diets are an effective treatment for autism spectrum disorder.
Chelation therapy is not an effective autism treatment, and it may be dangerous.
Surgery is rarely needed to reattach a small chunk of bone when it gets pulled away from the main part of the bone by a tendon or ligament.
Find out when your baby's weight might be of concern and how to promote a healthy weight.
Baby poop comes in various colors and textures. Know what to expect in your newborn's diapers.
Losing baby teeth is a major childhood milestone. Find out what to expect.
Baby walkers — A Mayo Clinic specialist explains the dangers of using a baby walker.
For back pain relief, an ergonomic chair is generally better than an exercise ball.
Understand the differences between bacterial and viral infections.
A tongue scraper may reduce bad breath temporarily, but proper dental hygiene remains essential.
Barefoot running shoes are designed to protect your feet while mimicking the mechanics of barefoot running.
Barrel chest isn't a disease, but it may indicate an underlying condition, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Weight gain can occur as a side effect of some of these medications used for high blood pressure and other conditions.
If you take beta blockers, you may need to adjust your target heart rate.
There's no evidence that bioidentical hormones are safer than standard hormone therapy for menopause.
The link isn't clearly understood, but these disorders often occur together. Get help from a mental health professional who's an expert in both disorders.
Although bipolar disorder usually affects adults, bipolar disorder in children and teenagers is possible. Early diagnosis and treatment can help.
Some medications used to treat bipolar disorder can increase your appetite or cause changes in metabolism leading to weight gain.
Bipolar I and bipolar II are different disorders, but treatment is similar.
If you took birth control pills before you knew you were pregnant, the risks of birth defects are low.
Pre-ejaculation fluid can cause pregnancy — which makes withdrawal an unreliable method of birth control.
Bitter orange is in some weight-loss supplements. It acts like a stimulant, which sounds promising but has risks.
Although women are more likely to get bladder infections, men can get them, too. Learn about signs and symptoms and what could put you at risk.
Find out more about the causes of male bladder outlet obstruction and possible next steps.
Light vaginal bleeding after hysterectomy is common; it may occur for several days or several weeks.
It's unusual to bleed from the vagina after menopause. Learn what health problems can cause it and why you need to see your health care provider.
A Mayo Clinic specialist explains what's behind this type of early pregnancy loss.
Blood clots during menstruation can be normal, but passing large clots may be a sign that something's wrong.
Consider these factors when measuring blood sugar levels with blood glucose monitors.
Accurate blood pressure readings depend on the proper size blood pressure cuff.
Losing weight may reduce — or eliminate — the need for blood pressure medication.
Learn which blood pressure medications might increase triglyceride levels.
Blood pressure that consistently measures higher outside the doctor's office is called masked hypertension.
A small difference in blood pressure readings between arms usually isn't a worry. But a large difference can be a warning sign of a health problem.
Like many body functions, blood pressure has a daily pattern. Find out more.
Blood pressure generally is higher in the winter than in the summer. Discover why.
Unexplained changes in blood sugar levels can be the result of illness, injury, stress and hormone changes.
These medications must be taken exactly as directed to prevent blood clots.
Body-weight training — Try out this alternative form of strength training.
Botox injections into arthritic joints may help reduce pain and improve function. The medicine works by interfering with the transmission of pain signals.
Dry skin after breast cancer radiation is fairly common. These suggestions may help.
Too much caffeine may possibly increase your risk of breast discomfort.
Concerned about a link between breast implants and cancer? Get the facts.
Breastfeeding and alcohol don't mix well. A Mayo Clinic specialist discusses how alcohol affects breast milk.
Understand why babies sometimes refuse to breastfeed and what you can do about it.
Brominated vegetable oil (BVO) is banned from use in food in many countries, so why is it still being used in some soft drinks sold in the U.S.?
Compared with a bulging disk, a herniated disk is more likely to cause pain because it protrudes farther and is more likely to compress nerve roots.
Even a minor injury to the scalp or forehead can cause a large lump. Find out when it's time to see a health care provider.
Margarine usually tops butter for heart health. But not all margarines are created equal.
Learn why health care providers generally don't recommend a CA 125 test for ovarian cancer screening.
Interested in using CBD? Here's what you need to know about the risks and benefits of using this drug.
Find out how COVID-19 can affect dogs and cats, what you can do to protect your pet, and how to care for your pet if it becomes sick.
Many treatments are being studied for COVID-19. Only one drug has been approved — an antiviral drug called remdesivir.
Understand how underlying health problems, the places where people live and work, and racism can affect who becomes severely ill with COVID-19.
Swollen lymph nodes caused by the COVID-19 vaccine can look like breast cancer on a mammogram. Find out what to do if you've got a mammogram scheduled.
Find out what's known about the new COVID-19 variants, including the omicron and delta variants.
Caffeine and depression are not directly linked, but there can be an indirect connection.
Coffee, tea and other caffeinated drinks may worsen menopausal hot flashes and other vasomotor symptoms.
For some people with diabetes, as much as one cup of coffee can cause higher or lower blood sugar levels. Learn how caffeine affects your blood sugar.
Caffeine can temporarily increase blood pressure, but its long-term effects on blood pressure are unclear.
Caffeinated drinks usually won't dehydrate you, but water is still your best option.
Learn about the possible link between calcium supplements and heart attacks.
In large amounts, calcium supplements may interfere with certain blood pressure medications.
Timing matters when it comes to calcium supplements. Find out what factors affect when you should take calcium.
Calories in sushi vary depending on what's paired with the rice. Use these tips to make smart choices when you're watching calories.
It may be possible to protect your baby from the pain and irritation of this skin rash that affects infants.
Coenzyme Q10 might help reduce the muscle aches some people experience while taking cholesterol-lowering drugs known as statins.
A Mayo Clinic specialist discusses the possible benefits of music for people with Alzheimer's disease.
Find out what labor techniques might help prevent severe vaginal tearing during childbirth.
Find out what the research says about vitamin D and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
There's mixed evidence on whether vitamins can prevent heart disease. Find out more.
Find out if eating whole-grain foods can lower blood pressure.
Should you follow a special gallbladder removal diet to prevent problems, such as diarrhea, after gallbladder surgery?
Candida cleanse diets that replace processed food with fresh foods improve health but don't necessarily stop yeast overgrowth.
Health concerns about canola oil abound on the internet but are unfounded.
Carefully planned pre-trip meals, air ventilation and distractions might help prevent car sickness in children.
Wheezing isn't always due to true asthma. Sometimes it's a sign of heart failure. Know the difference.
Carpal tunnel exercises may be helpful, but they aren't used alone.
Laser-assisted cataract surgery is an advanced approach used to help people with astigmatism.
Sometimes the capsule that holds the artificial lens becomes cloudy after cataract surgery.
Cellulitis — a common, potentially serious bacterial skin infection — is not directly contagious.
Cervical cysts usually aren't cancerous. Some types of cervical cysts are so common that they're considered a normal feature of cervical anatomy.
Learn what to expect if a Pap test shows cells that look different from typical cervical cells. Follow-up tests might include HPV testing and colposcopy.
If cervical length during pregnancy shortens too soon, there might be an increased risk of preterm labor.
Chemotherapy and sex aren't mutually exclusive, as long as you're feeling up to it.
Chemotherapy side effects may include a risk of heart problems, including weakened heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) and heart rhythm problems (arrhythmia).
Concerned about your child's growth? Find out how you can estimate your child's adult height.
A high cholesterol level is unhealthy — rarely, very low cholesterol may pose risks, too.
Non-HDL cholesterol may be more important than cholesterol ratio.
Home cholesterol test kits are often as accurate as the test your doctor uses, but it can depend on how precisely you follow the directions for the test.
When it comes to sunglasses, UV protection matters. Here's why.
Chronic bladder infection can be a painful, frustrating problem. Learn about causes and treatments.
Diarrhea is fairly common after gallbladder removal. Find out what to expect.
Despite what you might think, cigars aren't that different from cigarettes. Like cigarettes, cigars contain nicotine, tobacco and cancer-causing chemicals.
The term "clinical depression" means severe, persistent depression. It's also called major depression or major depressive disorder.
This oil has been touted by some as a cure for hypothyroidism. Truth or hype?
Interest in coconut water has skyrocketed. It's promoted as 'super hydrating,' but is it really any better than plain water?
Has coffee gotten a bum rap? Can it be part of a healthy diet?
Plain coffee has only a few calories. But the calories jump up when you start adding extras.
Some viruses are more resilient than you may think. Learn more about how they spread and how to protect yourself.
Although colds and seasonal allergies share some of the same symptoms, they are very different diseases. Learn how to tell the difference.
Contrary to popular belief, drinking milk doesn't increase phlegm production when you have a cold.
Colloidal silver supplements are often promoted as cure-alls, but evidence of effectiveness is lacking. Side effects range from change in skin color to organ damage.
Some groups recommend people over 75 may consider stopping colon cancer screening. Not everyone agrees. Learn about your colon cancer screening options.
Get the facts before trying this technique that's popular among some alternative medicine practitioners who claim it has numerous health benefits.
Whether your child's concussion is mild or severe, it's important to allow time to recover.
Coping with anxiety is a challenge. Eating habits may play a role.
Pain is common after mastectomy and other breast cancer operations. Find out what causes it and learn about treatment options.
The best treatment for coronary artery disease varies depending on the circumstances.
This sudden, temporary squeezing of the muscles in an artery wall reduces blood flow to the heart. Know the causes and treatment.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a virus that spreads between people. Find out how to protect yourself and those close to you.
If you cough more than usual after you give up cigarettes, find out what it might mean and when to call the doctor.
Coxsackievirus usually causes only mild symptoms. But in some cases, serious illness can happen.
Craving and chewing ice (pagophagia) is often associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia.
Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia affects your lungs' small airways and air-exchange sacs.
Some research suggests that curcumin may help prevent or treat cancer.
Degenerative changes in the spine visible on X-ray indicate osteoarthritis of the spine.
Understanding the causes and types of demyelinating disease, such as multiple sclerosis, can help guide treatment decisions and manage symptoms.
Dental braces are recommended for many children — When is the best time to start?
Cleaning between your teeth every day is an important part of good oral health.
Here are best practices for the care and cleaning of removable partial or full dentures.
Depression and anxiety commonly occur together and have similar treatments: counseling (psychotherapy) or medication, such as antidepressants, or both.
Do detox foot pads really draw toxins out of your body while you sleep?
Diabetes and depression can occur together. Here's what you need to know.
Learn about fasting with diabetes during Ramadan, including potential risks and how to manage your diabetes.
Learn what you can do to protect your feet if you have diabetes.
It's a common myth that you shouldn't eat certain foods if you have diabetes.
Generally, there's no advantage to substituting honey for sugar in a diabetes eating plan.
Learn what cinnamon's role may be as part of a broader diabetes treatment plan.
Electric blankets are generally discouraged if you have diabetes.
What the change in the research definition of Alzheimer's disease means for you.
Diet soda may help you cut calories, but other low-calorie options abound.
Digestion takes about two to five days, depending on your system.
Baby teeth can become discolored for many reasons, including inadequate brushing, medications and illness.
Diuretics and gout can be related because the medication may raise uric acid in your blood. It's usually possible to avoid this side effect, though.
These medications are commonly used to treat high blood pressure. A side effect of some diuretics is low potassium.
Contrary to popular belief, no specific foods are known to trigger diverticulitis attacks.
Cortisol blockers claim to help with weight loss, but do they deliver? The evidence is slim at best.
How is an infrared sauna different from a traditional sauna? Light provides the heat.
You know vitamin C helps fight the common cold. But did you know that vitamin C might also help improve your mood?
Despite the hype, toning shoes aren't a substitute for good old exercise.
AFib is a common heart disorder. Sometimes it is inherited. Learn about all the risk factors.
You've probably heard the buzz about honey for allergies — but does this sweet remedy deliver?
Learn how your risk of developing a common heart rhythm disorder called atrial fibrillation can increase as you become older.
Have you heard about prickly pear cactus? Find out about some surprising health benefits of this versatile plant.
Soy foods reduce the risk of breast cancer, but more research is needed to determine whether soy supplements are equally beneficial.
Wondering whether sunscreen expires? Get the facts about how long sunscreen lasts.
A Doppler ultrasound measures blood flow and pressure in blood vessels.
Find out how a doula might be helpful during pregnancy, childbirth and recovery.
Your hepatitis C infection has been cured, but is it safe to drink alcohol again?
E. coli doesn't affect the way a food looks, smells or tastes. Learn ways to protect yourself.
Early signs of the disease can include fever, fatigue and swollen lymph glands. Learn more.
Early miscarriage is usually caused by an abnormality with the baby — not maternal stress.
Find out more about a virus spread to people by mosquitoes, its symptoms and ways to prevent being infected with it.
Despite claims of benefits, eating your placenta after giving birth can be harmful to you and your baby.
Ebola virus: A Mayo Clinic expert explains how the virus spreads
Echinacea may slightly reduce the duration and severity of cold symptoms, but the effect may be too minor to notice.
Get the latest information about eggs, cholesterol and heart disease.
This measurement, commonly taken during an echocardiogram, shows how well the heart is pumping. Know what results mean.
Understand if an elective abortion can affect your fertility or future pregnancies.
There is no cure for this disorder of the nervous system but promising research offers hope for new ways to slow and perhaps reverse the effects of this disease.
Endometriosis and ovarian cancer are linked, but the relationship isn't straight cause and effect.
Lifestyle factors such as diet appear to play a role in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). See what lifestyle changes may help with symptoms.
Enterovirus D68 and parechovirus infections can lead to serious illness among children. Know the symptoms and what you can do.
Breakthrough bleeding is more common with continuous and extended-cycle birth control pills, but usually decreases with time.
Eye dilation is part of a comprehensive eye exam. How often you need it depends on your age and health risks.
Some supplements are marketed as 'eye vitamins' that help protect your eyes against glaucoma. Is there any truth to these claims?
Fainting during or immediately after urination (micturition syncope) is a rare occurrence in healthy individuals.
Here's what to consider after a fall during pregnancy, including when to seek medical attention.
Periodically following a fasting diet may have heart-health benefits. Find out more.
Not all women have orgasms with vaginal penetration during sex. Most women need stimulation of the clitoris to climax.
Fiber supplements are one tool for adding fiber to your diet and easing constipation. Here are some tips for using them safely.
Fibrocystic breast changes are common and not linked to increased risk of breast cancer.
Fibromyalgia symptoms may be reduced by acupuncture treatments.
Fibromyalgia often co-exists with several other painful conditions, which may be related to how your body processes pain signals.
Nutrition experts recommend ground flaxseed over whole flaxseed. Find out why.
Find out about the safety of antiviral flu medication during pregnancy.
Influenza masks and hand hygiene might help protect health care workers from flu (influenza).
Will you be pregnant during flu season? A flu shot is safe — and it protects both you and your baby.
The flu shot protects against influenza, which is different from the stomach flu (gastroenteritis).
If you're at high risk of flu complications, see your doctor when experiencing flu symptoms.
If you have egg allergy, you still may be able to receive the flu vaccine.
Persistently foamy urine can be a sign of protein in your urine (proteinuria) and could be an indicator of kidney disease.
Might you have to swear off milkshakes for good? Follow the symptom clues to find out whether you possibly have a food allergy or a food intolerance.
Prevent food poisoning with these food safety tips for handling and reheating leftover food.
Leg and foot swelling during air travel is common and usually harmless.
Results from free blood pressure monitoring machines aren't always accurate.
Some studies have suggested that frequent ejaculation may reduce the risk of prostate cancer. But other research hasn't supported this idea.
This type of receding hairline, which primarily affects older women, is treatable. The earlier you talk with your doctor about it, the better your chance of preventing permanent baldness.
Fructose is a sugar found naturally in fruits, fruit juices, some vegetables and honey. Learn which foods to avoid if you have fructose intolerance.
Certain medications can aggravate symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Learn more.
Noninsulin drugs for diabetes improve blood sugar control and may also support weight loss.
A gallbladder cleanse is a popular alternative remedy for gallstones. But does it work?
The size of gallbladder polyps can be a useful predictor of whether they're cancerous.
After gastric bypass surgery, diet and exercise are crucial for maintaining your weight loss.
It is nearly impossible to get genital herpes from a toilet seat.
Glucosamine manufacturers claim their products slow or stop cartilage damage in osteoarthritis.
Some people with diabetes use the glycemic index (GI) as a guide in selecting foods.
Read more about this small, usually harmless area of inflammation that often shows up incidentally when you have a test for another reason.
Grapefruit and other citrus can be a problem if you take prescription medicines.
Grass-fed beef may have heart-health benefits that conventional beef doesn't. Find out more.
HER2-positive breast cancer tends to be more aggressive than other types of breast cancer. Treatments that target HER2 are very effective.
Learn what types of cancer HPV can cause in men and how you can reduce your risk.
Cervical cancer is most often caused by a genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
You know the value of hand washing, but did you know hand drying matters too? Why? Wet hands more easily spread germs.
Hand swelling during exercise is a common problem, but rarely serious enough to disrupt your routine.
Drinking lighter colored drinks is not a good method of hangover prevention, but it may help a little.
Headaches during pregnancy are common. Here's help easing the pain.
Preventing heart disease begins with small steps. Find out more about maintaining a healthy heart.
It's possible that secondhand smoke can irritate the arteries and increase the risk of a heart attack.
Although heart tumors do occur, the vast majority of them are noncancerous (benign).
Many people with heart failure worry that sex might harm their hearts. How do you know when it's OK to be intimate? Cardiac rehab and counseling can help.
A normal resting heart rate for adults ranges from 60 to 100 beats per minute. A heart rate above or below that may signal a problem.
Acid-controlling medications may do more than prevent heartburn. They may also interfere with vitamin B-12 absorption.
Heavy periods may cause iron deficiency anemia. Folic acid supplements can't treat that.
Heel spurs — Bony growths not necessarily the cause of your heel pain.
Know how to relieve painful, swollen veins in the anus and rectum during pregnancy.
Although hepatitis C is highly contagious, the risk of sexual transmission is very low.
End-stage complications of hepatitis C include liver failure and liver cancer.
Herbal treatment for anxiety: A Mayo Clinic expert discusses safety and effectiveness.
A hernia truss can temporarily ease discomfort, but medical care is needed for a painful hernia.
Among cold remedies, decongestants cause the most concern for people who have high blood pressure.
High cholesterol in children can lead to narrowed and hardened arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease later in life.
High-dose vitamin C has been touted by some as an effective alternative cancer treatment.
Too much added sugar, including high-fructose corn syrup, can affect your health.
Considering a high-protein diet for weight loss? Understand the precautions first.
Hip resurfacing uses a metal-on-metal prosthesis, which can cause health problems in some people.
Learn how types of lymphomas are determined using lab tests to examine cancer cells.
A study in children with the common cold suggests that honey may help calm coughs.
Hoodia manufacturers claim the supplement controls appetite, but where's the evidence to back up these claims?
If you're a caregiver of a loved one with Alzheimer's disease, guilt is a common feeling. Forgive yourself to move forward with your duties and improve your emotional health.
Antibody testing determines if you had COVID-19 (coronavirus) infection in the past. It differs from testing to diagnose if you currently have COVID-19.
Researchers have uncovered a type of body fat, dubbed brown fat, that appears to burn regular fat.
Wonder how many hours of sleep are enough? A Mayo Clinic specialist offers guidelines.
Learn how to treat the tiny, painful cracks that can form on the thumb tip when your skin is very dry.
Knowing how much saturated fat is in the foods you eat can help you meet your health and nutrition goals.
Learn what you can do at home if your ear new piercing becomes infected.
Learn simple remedies to easing your baby's discomfort from the pain and irritation of this skin rash.
In sexual assault survivors, the main traumatic event typically becomes encoded in memory. Less important details may not be as well retained in memory.
According to the hygiene hypothesis, early childhood infections can help prevent asthma. But is that the case?
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy helps with some medical conditions that affect the brain. Find out what the research says about its role in stroke treatment.
Hyperinflated lungs can be associated with lung conditions, such as COPD.
Understand what causes a breast milk oversupply and what you can do about it.
A sudden rise in blood pressure over 180/120 mm Hg is considered a medical emergency, or crisis. It can lead to a stroke. Know the symptoms.
Hypnobirthing — A Mayo Clinic specialist discusses this method of easing pain during childbirth.
For women, there's sometimes a link between having an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) and infertility.
Hypothyroidism symptoms can vary, but eye problems aren't usually a concern.
Calcium supplements can interfere with how the body absorbs medications used to treat hypothyroidism.
Rarely, hypothyroidism can cause peripheral neuropathy, such as carpal tunnel syndrome.
Hypothyroidism can cause muscle and joint problems, such as pain and stiffness.
Although iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism, this deficiency is rare in the United States.
Implantation bleeding is a common early pregnancy symptom. Understand why it happens.
With time and dedication, breastfeeding without pregnancy (induced lactation) might be possible.
Worried about infant constipation? A Mayo Clinic specialist explains how to treat it.
Infant growth rates depend on various factors. Consider what's typical during baby's first year.
Frequent waking is a common form of insomnia. Here's how to fall asleep again.
Intermittent fasting isn't new, but it's gaining followers. What's the appeal?
Using a home sperm test to check your fertility may not provide a clear answer.
Depression is common in people with rheumatoid arthritis. If it isn't treated, depression may contribute to worsening of rheumatoid arthritis symptoms.
Is fibromyalgia hereditary? The disorder appears to run in families.
Takeout containers aren't the best for storing leftovers. Wrap or repackage food to keep it fresher and safer.
Both the top and bottom numbers in blood pressure readings are indicators of your health. But just the top number being high might be a concern.
Learn more about isometric exercises that contract a particular muscle or group of muscles.
Juicing is a hot trend, but does it deliver on claims of better health? Learn about the pros and cons of juicing.
Depression and diet may be related, and junk food may increase the risk of depression.
Many factors may influence the decision to withdraw from kidney dialysis.
Kidney donation can save a life, but it's important to understand the risks.
You know your kids should exercise, but how much? Find out and get ideas for helping children and adolescents be more physically active.
Does kombucha tea live up to its reputation as a health tonic?
L-arginine is a substance that relaxes blood vessels and may help lower blood pressure. Learn how it works and who should or shouldn't take the supplement.
Lack of sleep can affect your immune system. Here's what you need to know.
Laryngospasm is a brief spasm of the vocal cords, which temporarily interrupts breathing.
Late-night snacks aren't necessarily off-limits with diabetes, but healthy choices won't leave you with high blood sugar in the morning.
Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a slow developing form of autoimmune diabetes.
A Mayo Clinic specialist shares prevention and treatment tips for leg cramps during pregnancy.
New, persistent leg pain or aching may indicate an underlying circulation problem.
Breast tenderness is not among the published escitalopram (Lexapro) side effects, but some studies and unofficial reports have linked them.
Get the scoop on liposuction alternatives that reduce body fat without surgery.
Learn when this condition that causes a lacy pattern on the skin is simply a result of being chilled or something more serious.
Occasionally, liver cysts can cause pain and discomfort in the upper abdomen.
Chronic hepatitis C may lead to liver failure, which has only one treatment: Liver transplant. Find out more about this risk.
Age-related loss of sex drive is normal, but sometimes an underlying condition is at play.
Aging can play a role in the loss of taste and smell — but not always.
Delivery, amnioinfusion and drinking more fluids might be recommended when amniotic fluid is found to be low.
For older adults, low blood sodium (hyponatremia) can be fatal if left untreated.
Find out what can affect your milk supply and how to boost it.
If you have kidney disease, you may need to limit how much phosphorus you eat or drink each day. A dietitian can help you create a custom meal plan.
Lung nodules are common. Most aren't cancer. Find out what tests might be recommended if you have a lung nodule.
Hair loss is common in lupus. Although distressing, it is usually temporary.
Although uncommon, hives can occur in people with lupus. Learn about causes and treatments.
Older gadolinium contrast agents used with MRI posed a risk for people with severe kidney failure. Newer versions are much safer.
Enlarged red blood cells (macrocytosis) can be due to many factors.
Find out what ingredients pharmacists combine for this treatment for mouth sores caused by chemotherapy and other cancer treatments.
Learn how to make progress toward your goals of learning new skills such as a new language or a musical instrument.
Latest Mayo Clinic mammogram guidelines for breast cancer screening.
Get tips to manage your health, stay focused, and use your time well while dealing with job pressures and demands.
Some marketers claim mangosteen juice has anti-inflammatory benefits. Find out what the research says.
Marijuana and depression seem to go hand in hand for some people, but there's no clear evidence that marijuana directly causes depression.
Is it possible to get measles from someone else if you've been vaccinated?
Melatonin is generally safe for short-term use but can cause side effects.
For many women, menopause and high blood pressure seem to go together. Discover why.
Some forms of hormone therapy prescribed to ease hot flashes and other menopause symptoms may cause vaginal bleeding. Learn more.
Combining migraine medications and antidepressants may pose several concerns.
Certain antidepressants are used in migraine treatment. Learn more about these medications.
Migraines can be associated with certain gastrointestinal problems. Learn more.
Antidepressants don't always ease mild depression symptoms, but you may still benefit from treatment.
The term 'ministroke' typically refers to a transient ischemic attack.
Find out more about the rare mpox, or monkeypox, viral infection, the possible symptoms in humans, treatment options and how to prevent getting or spreading the virus.
The Epstein-Barr virus sometimes causes a disease known as mono. Learn who is at risk and what the symptoms are.
Mono can return in some rare cases. Learn more about causes and complications.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) can trigger headaches and other symptoms in some people.
Visible mucus in stool can have a variety of causes — not necessarily serious.
Seizures occur more often in people with multiple sclerosis than in the general population.
Myofascial release, a form of manual therapy, may help reduce back pain.
Common pain medications such as ibuprofen or naproxen sodium may increase the risk of heart attack and stroke.
Vertical nail ridges are common and often become more prominent with age.
Narrow stools may be a sign of narrowing or obstruction of the colon.
Nasal spray 'addiction' isn't really an addiction at all. Learn more.
Natural acne treatment comes in various forms. Some may be beneficial.
Breast enhancement supplements haven't been proved effective and could cause side effects.
For some people, certain herbal and dietary supplements seem to help with depression, but more studies are needed on their effectiveness and side effects.
Nausea during pregnancy, also called morning sickness, is common. Understand what nausea and vomiting might mean for your pregnancy.
Nervous breakdown is not a medical term — but it may indicate an underlying mental health problem that needs attention, such as anxiety or depression.
Nervous stomach is a vague term that doesn't indicate a specific diagnosis.
A homemade neti pot solution is just as effective as the over-the-counter variety.
Learn more about this container designed to rinse debris or mucus from the nasal cavity.
Some Neurontin side effects can be troubling and require evaluation by your health care provider.
Get the facts about when to wake a sleeping baby for a feeding.
Niacin overdose is unlikely when it's taken as prescribed for high cholesterol.
"Alarm clock" (hypnic) headaches wake people up. But other nighttime headaches also can disrupt sleep. Relief begins with determining the cause.
Nighttime panic attacks can cause sweating, rapid heart rate, trembling, shortness of breath, heavy breathing, flushing or chills. Learn about treatment.
Occipital nerve stimulation is a relatively new procedure to treat chronic headache disorders.
Flashes of light, zigzagging patterns and temporary blindness — what does it all mean?
This essential fatty acid is found in certain foods and is recommended as part of a balance diet.
Opioids aren't the first choice for a chronic condition such as arthritis. And some of their side effects may be particularly concerning for older people.
You know what M.D. means, but what does D.O. mean? What's different and what's alike between these two kinds of health care providers?
Many people can stop taking these common osteoporosis medications after 3 to 5 years.
Joint replacement of the hip, knee and shoulder can be done safely as outpatient surgery. Most people can go home the same day as the procedure.
Surgery to remove your uterus may affect your risk of ovarian cancer, depending on the type of procedure you had.
Certain types of ovarian cysts can contribute to fertility problems.
Trying to get pregnant? Learn about ovulation signs and symptoms.
Ozone air purifiers don't reduce asthma symptoms. In fact, they can make asthma worse.
A number of factors can cause PSA levels to rise after surgery for an enlarged prostate.
Depression can cause unexplained physical symptoms, such as headaches. Chronic pain can cause problems that lead to depression, such as poor sleep.
Palliative care — Mayo Clinic expert explains who may benefit from palliative care and how it differs from hospice care.
Various factors stack the odds against successful pancreatic cancer treatment.
Doctors recommend regular cervical cancer screening whether you've had sex or not.
If you've had surgery to remove your uterus, you might not need routine Pap smears. Find out what doctors recommend for cervical cancer screening.
Unfortunately, there is no standard or routine screening test for ovarian cancer.
Learn about the signs of this indirect way of expressing negative feelings.
There are no hypoallergenic dog breeds, but you can reduce your allergic reactions.
Rarely, inhaling petroleum jelly for prolonged periods can cause lung inflammation (lipoid pneumonia).
Phantosmia is often due to a head injury or upper respiratory infection.
This prescription medicine can help with weight loss when combined with a healthy diet and exercise.
You may be worried about phenylalanine because of a warning on diet soda. Find out why the warning is there.
Phosphatidylserine holds some promise as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's and other memory problems.
Photodynamic therapy may play a limited role in lung cancer treatment.
Many parents wonder how long pink eye (conjunctivitis) is contagious. Find out.
Plugged ears are usually a mild, temporary problem. Learn about potential causes and treatments.
This combination pill contains small doses of several commonly prescribed heart disease medications.
Early research suggested that pomegranate juice could slow the growth of prostate cancer, but more-rigorous trials failed to confirm those results.
Small studies suggest that pomegranate juice might help lower cholesterol. Find out more about this antioxidant-rich juice.
Use these tips to help someone cope with stress from a traumatic event, whether it's acute stress disorder (ASD) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Find out how pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can prevent HIV infection.
Prednisone is a powerful medication. Find out why it's so important to taper off your dosage gradually.
Learn about self-care and safe medications to treat acne during pregnancy.
Understand the possible risks of hot tub use during pregnancy.
Pregnancy constipation is common. Know how to safely treat it.
Extreme moodiness, intense sadness or marked irritability in the days before your period — along with your usual PMS symptoms — could be PMDD.
Prenatal vitamins: Why they might not be suitable if you're not pregnant.
Depending on what's causing it, hair loss in women may be prevented.
Probiotics are foods or supplements that contain 'good' bacteria that might help treat or prevent illness. Should they be part of your diet?
Prolotherapy may help low back pain, but proof remains elusive.
Magnesium supplements are popular but not risk-free. Fortunately food sources are easy to add to your diet.
Prostate cancer can spread (metastasize) just about anywhere in the body, but it's most likely to spread to the lymph nodes and bones.
Find out what your PSA level may mean for your prostate cancer prognosis.
Some men with prostatitis have pain with ejaculation or sexual activity.
Protein shakes aren't a magic bullet for weight loss. Here's why.
Pseudoaneurysm may be a complication of cardiac catheterization.
Pseudoclaudication and claudication causes leg pain for different reasons. One is caused by pinched spinal nerves while the other is a circulation problem.
Pubic hair removal is common, but so are related side effects.
Pulse pressure may be a strong predictor of heart problems, especially for older adults.
Gaining weight after you quit smoking is fairly common, but you can take steps to prevent it. Learn how.
Reactive airway disease is a general term that doesn't indicate a specific diagnosis.
Reactive hypoglycemia is low blood sugar that occurs shortly after eating.
Recurrent prostate infections can be difficult to treat. Here's what to consider.
Tonsillectomy may sometimes be needed in children who have recurring strep throat infections.
Although a renal diet restricts protein, you still must eat some protein every day.
Repeat C-sections are common — but each C-section is generally more complicated than the last.
Resperate is a device that teaches slow, deep breathing — which can reduce blood pressure.
Rhabdomyolysis is a rare but potentially life-threatening side effect of statins.
Although rheumatoid arthritis is primarily a joint disease, it occasionally affects the eyes.
Although rheumatoid arthritis primarily affects the joints, it can also affect the lungs.
Ricin is a deadly poison derived from castor bean plants — the same beans used to make castor oil.
Excessive salt craving may indicate an underlying medical condition, such as Addison's disease.
Learn how to tell apart these common conditions of the scalp, both of which cause inflamed, scaly skin.
Should you take health claims about sea salt with a grain of salt? What makes it different from table salt?
Second pregnancies don't always come easily. Learn about possible causes for secondary infertility and when to seek professional help.
Semen allergy, also called seminal plasma hypersensitivity, is a rare condition that can be easily misdiagnosed. Learn about symptoms and possible treatments.
With time and patience, you can resume sexual activity at any age.
Find out whether COVID-19 can be spread during sexual activity and how to reduce your risk of getting the virus from a sexual partner.
Vaginal infection makes intercourse painful and weakens your resistance to sexually transmitted infections. Consider waiting.
Contrary to popular belief, shaving unwanted hair doesn't make it grow back thicker.
Generally, it's best to avoid alcohol during the course of shingles treatment.
A shingles vaccine uses only part of the varicella-zoster virus, so you can't infect others.
People who are age 50 and older should get the shingles vaccine to prevent shingles.
If you have A-fib, you may need to avoid certain foods or drinks. Know when and why you may need to change your diet.
Physical activity and atrial fibrillation — Should people with atrial fibrillation participate in physical activity?
This type of heart attack occurs with few, if any, symptoms. Find out more.
Understand the health effects of ruptured silicone breast implants.
Sometimes the cause of a toothache isn't a tooth problem, but a sinus problem.
Sitting for long periods — such as in front of the TV or at a desk — appears to increase risk of death from cardiovascular disease and cancer.
Sjogren's syndrome isn't thought to cause UTIs, but it may cause other urinary conditions.
Find out about common skin changes during pregnancy, including pigmentation changes, varicose veins, acne and stretch marks.
Antihistamines are somewhat effective as sleep aids — but only for occasional insomnia.
Caffeine doesn't seem to cause or aggravate obstructive sleep apnea.
Too little sleep affects not only energy levels but also heart health.
Is a slow metabolism the reason for your weight gain? Or is something else going on?
Cancer cells are classified by how they look under a microscope. Learn common terms used to describe cancer cells.
Sodium nitrate, a preservative in some meats, may increase your heart disease risk.
Soy doesn't significantly lower cholesterol. But eating soy can still be healthy.
Whether people who have hypothyroidism should avoid soy is a topic of debate.
This term is sometimes used to refer to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) — but how accurate is it?
After ejaculation, the life span of sperm depends on the circumstances.
Spreading bowel preparation over two days makes the process more tolerable and does a better job of cleaning the colon before a colonoscopy.
Statins can cause muscle injury in some people. But can they also trigger ALS?
Depending on which virus causes your stomach ailment, you can be contagious from a few days to two weeks or more.
Stool color is usually a result of diet and is only rarely a concern.
Strep throat in young children is uncommon, but it's possible. Learn about symptoms.
Think about these ideas as you consider what skills and career you'd like to pursue in the future.
Sulfa allergy: A Mayo Clinic expert discusses which medications are likely to cause problems.
Sundowning isn't a disease. It's a symptom that often occurs in people with dementia.
Superslow strength training can help you add variety to your strength training routine.
Your body can't digest chewing gum. So what happens when you swallow it?
Tanning beds don't offer a safe alternative to natural sunlight.
Taurine might improve athletic performance but further research is needed.
Ice is recommended for sudden injuries to tendons. But heat might be a better choice for chronic tendinitis caused by overuse.
Find out how to help your toddler meet the challenges of being 2.
Test anxiety can interfere with your performance: Here's what you can do.
A Mayo Clinic specialist discusses the relationship between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer.
Testosterone therapy may boost sex drive for some women, but its long-term safety is unclear.
You can safely cook a frozen turkey without thawing it first — if you follow a few safety precautions.
Take steps to prevent this early-morning increase in blood sugar.
Fragile or thin skin is a fairly common problem, especially in older adults.
Thyroid disease can affect mood, but those symptoms are rarely the only evidence of thyroid disease.
A Mayo Clinic expert discusses using thyroid guards during mammograms to reduce the risk of thyroid cancer from radiation.
A thyroid peroxidase antibody test can help determine the cause of thyroid disease.
Ringing in the ears, also known as tinnitus, has many possible causes, such as taking antidepressants.
A Mayo Clinic specialist describes typical speech development between the ages of 2 and 3.
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient, but too much carries its own risks.
A Mayo Clinic expert explains the differences and similarities between these two types of growths and how doctors determine if they're cancerous.
Ultraprocessed foods, such as frozen dinners, are staples for many Americans. Why do these convenience foods have a bad rep?
Know how to wash and care for your child's uncircumcised penis.
If you're underweight and not happy about it, try these tips to help you achieve your goal weight.
Undigested food in stool generally isn't a problem unless it's accompanied by other symptoms.
Type O negative is sometimes called the universal blood donor type.
Find out about the unusual symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including COVID toes, nausea, and loss of smell or taste.
Like LDL cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol is considered a type of 'bad' cholesterol.
A Mayo Clinic specialist explains why young children need to have many vaccines in a schedule.
Find out which vaccines you need during pregnancy and which ones to avoid.
Low-dose estrogen therapy, vaginal moisturizers and vaginal lubricants are among possible treatments for menopausal vaginal dryness and its discomforts.
Although switching to a vegetarian diet won't cure diabetes, it may offer some benefits.
Learn about drugs to treat problems with sexual arousal or sexual desire in women.
Vicks VapoRub is often used as a nasal decongestant. Does it work?
Low levels of vitamin B-12 and other B vitamins may be linked to depression, but more research is needed.
Vitamin B-12 injections — A weight-loss shot sounds appealing, but does it work?
Some research suggests that vitamin D may reduce the risk of multiple sclerosis.
Too little vitamin D is bad for the bones, but what about the heart? Learn how vitamin D deficiency may affect blood pressure.
A Mayo Clinic specialist explains why, when and how to give your baby vitamin D.
Understand the risks of too much vitamin D, including a toxic reaction.
Vocal cord dysfunction and asthma cause similar symptoms, but they're not the same. Find out the difference between the two.
Vulvar varicosities can cause discomfort during pregnancy. Understand what causes this form of varicose veins and learn how to get relief.
Walking pneumonia is a mild bacterial infection that resembles a cold. It usually does not require bed rest or a hospital stay.
Walking and a prudent diet can put you on the path to sustainable weight management.
Certain foods and beverages may interact with warfarin. Find out more.
Warm-mist and cool-mist humidifiers are equally effective in humidifying the air.
Drinking plenty of water helps keep your digestive system on track.
Interested in natural diuretics for fluid retention and weight gain? You may be better off watching your diet.
Understand how calorie restriction and exercise help you meet weight goals.
Although beneficial in the long term, weightlifting can cause temporary, sometimes dramatic, increases in blood pressure.
Learn how opioid medications work and how those effects can be dangerous when the drugs are taken incorrectly.
Some bacteria and other germs are resistant to most types of antibiotics and medications that treat them. Find out the risks and how to prevent infections.
Get to know what the dates on food packages mean, including the 'sell by' and 'best if used by' dates.
Find out more about BPA, a chemical used in some plastics and resins, and explore options for reducing your exposure.
MERS-CoV is a respiratory illness that's sometimes fatal. Help protect yourself with good hygiene practices.
Know when new heart failure symptoms require a call to a health care provider or an ER visit. A heart failure action plan can guide your self-care.
Learn more about this mosquito-borne virus — found in Africa, Asia, India, and parts of Europe and the Americas — that causes fever and severe joint pain.
Hot yoga, also known as Bikram yoga, is an intense form of yoga performed in a heated studio.
Heart age is a way to understand your risk of a heart attack or stroke. By making healthier lifestyle choices, you can lower your heart age and your risk.
Reflexology is gaining popularity as a stress reliever, but does it work?
Learn about this tick from Asia that was recently reported in the United States and find out how to prevent tick bites.
Tobacco smoke creates toxic residue that clings to walls, carpets, clothes and other surfaces.
Wheatgrass is a popular addition to smoothies and other drinks. While it's a rich source of nutrients, it's not a disease cure-all.
Wheezing in children may be a sign of asthma — but not always.
Olive, canola or grapeseed? Which cooking oil should you use for sauteing and frying?
When should you brush your teeth? Understand how to protect your oral health.
Blood pressure that measures high during a health checkup could be a risk factor for high blood pressure. Find out more.
A small white patch on skin may have several causes, including eczema, psoriasis and vitiligo.
White stool isn't normal and may indicate a serious liver problem. Learn about causes.
Find out how whitening toothpaste works and whether it's effective.
Whole-body vibration — Don't give up regular exercise and a healthy diet.
Hepatitis C vaccine development is far from straightforward, but experimental vaccines are under study.
Many dentists recommend wisdom teeth removal to improve oral health.
Devices that measure blood pressure at the wrist may be an option for some people. Know how to position a wrist monitor properly.
Understand when an X-ray during pregnancy might cause harm and how to avoid it.
Yeast infections are common during pregnancy. Over-the-counter treatments are usually safe.
Yeast infections can occur in men, causing inflammation of the penis (balanitis). Learn what signs and symptoms could mean you have a yeast infection.
This herbal tea may help you feel more alert and focused, but find out what the possible health risks are.
Everyone's heard of taking zinc for colds. But does it really work?