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Find out what to expect during a 3D mammogram to look for breast cancer. Learn how this newer test compares to a standard mammogram.

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Last Updated: Sep 12, 2018

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Learn more about the preparation for and results of this common diabetes blood test.

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Last Updated: Dec 18, 2018

Learn about surgery to repair a knee ligament, including what you need to do to prepare for this procedure and what results you can expect.

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Last Updated: Dec 11, 2018

An antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is one test used to help determine if you have an autoimmune disease such as lupus.

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Last Updated: Dec 28, 2017

AV node ablation — Learn who may benefit from this cardiac catheter procedure to correct a heart rhythm problem at the AV node.

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Last Updated: Mar 16, 2018

Learn about reasons why a hysterectomy might be done and what to expect if you need to have surgery to remove your uterus.

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Last Updated: Jul 25, 2019

Abdominal ultrasound is the preferred test to screen for an aortic aneurysm. But it may be done for other health reasons, too. Learn why and how it’s done.

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Last Updated: Nov 20, 2018

Active surveillance for prostate cancer — Overview covers what to expect, risks of expectant management or watchful waiting for prostate cancer.

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Last Updated: Nov 5, 2019

Practitioners use this integrative medicine technique to treat common problems such as back pain, neck pain and joint pain to influence energy flow.

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Last Updated: Feb 14, 2018

Allergy shots (immunotherapy) offer long-term relief from allergy symptoms. However, the treatment takes as long as three to five years to be effective.

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Last Updated: Sep 13, 2018

Allergy tests — Overview covers definition, risks, results of skin tests for allergic sensitivities.

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Last Updated: Oct 23, 2019

Allogeneic stem cell transplant — Learn about this type of bone marrow transplant using stem cells from donor blood, bone marrow or umbilical cord blood.

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Last Updated: Mar 16, 2018

Find out about this prenatal test that checks the fluid surrounding your baby during pregnancy.

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Last Updated: Mar 8, 2019

Ankle-brachial index — Overview covers definition, results of this test for peripheral artery disease.

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Last Updated: Jan 10, 2018

Find out more about this procedure to reinforce a ring around a heart valve.

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Last Updated: Jan 4, 2018

Find out how aortic valve repair and aortic valve replacement can treat aortic valve stenosis, aortic valve regurgitation and congenital heart disease.

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Last Updated: Mar 27, 2018

Know what to expect during an arm lift and the possible risks.

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Last Updated: Aug 18, 2018

Learn more about this procedure that uses a slim fiber-optic camera to diagnose and treat joint problems.

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Last Updated: Aug 16, 2018

Atrial fibrillation ablation — Learn about procedures for treating heart quiver (fibrillation) that hasn't gotten better with drugs or other treatments.

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Last Updated: Mar 24, 2018

Atrial flutter ablation — Learn how heart specialists use cardiac ablation to treat atrial flutter.

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Last Updated: Dec 30, 2016

Learn more about what an auditory brainstem implant is, how it works and how it may be right for you.

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Last Updated: Feb 19, 2019

This type of bone marrow transplant uses your own blood stem cells to treat blood disorders and cancers.

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Last Updated: Oct 5, 2019

Awake brain surgery is performed while you are awake and alert. This type of brain surgery may be used to treat some brain tumors or epileptic seizures.

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Last Updated: May 7, 2019

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Find out what to expect if you're considering a blood test to determine if you have an increased risk of breast cancer. Learn what your results might mean.

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Last Updated: Sep 12, 2019

Gastric bypass surgery is a type of weight-loss surgery. It's important to understand risks and results of gastric bypass and other types of bariatric surgery.

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Last Updated: Jan 12, 2019

Barium enema — Overview covers definition, risks, results of this exam to detect colon disease.

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Last Updated: Apr 18, 2018

Learn the steps for tracking basal temperature for fertility or contraception. Find out when during your menstrual cycle you're most fertile.

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Last Updated: Nov 13, 2018

Learn about a two-part weight-loss procedure that involves making the stomach smaller and reconnecting parts of the small intestine

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Last Updated: Mar 28, 2018

Bilirubin test — Overview covers definition, results of this test for liver disease.

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Last Updated: Nov 6, 2018

Biofeedback is a technique you can learn to control your body's responses, such as your heart rate. It can be helpful for a variety of health problems..

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Last Updated: Feb 6, 2019

Find out what to expect during this prenatal test that combines fetal heart rate monitoring and a fetal ultrasound.

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Last Updated: Oct 11, 2019

Learn how to use this type of birth control that administers estrogen and progestin through a patch you wear on your skin to prevent pregnancy.

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Last Updated: Jan 26, 2019

Learn about innovative approaches to bladder removal surgery at Mayo Clinic, including robotic surgery and neobladder reconstruction.

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Last Updated: Mar 28, 2018

Learn what's involved and the risks, as well as what kind of results you can expect from this eyelid surgery.

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Last Updated: Mar 28, 2018

Learn what blood and bone marrow donation is, as well as its steps and risks.

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Last Updated: Dec 20, 2018

Find out what to expect during blood donation and how your blood will be used to help others.

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Last Updated: Dec 27, 2017

Find out what to expect during a test to measure the pressure in your arteries as your heart pumps, and learn about the results.

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Last Updated: Feb 27, 2018

A blood transfusion can help replace blood lost due to surgery or injury. It also can help if an illness prevents your body from making blood correctly.

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Last Updated: Aug 1, 2017

Learn how to prepare, what to expect and possible results of this test to assess kidney and liver function.

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Last Updated: Jul 2, 2019

If your doctor suspects you have osteoporosis, a bone density test can assess your bone strength. Learn about the risks and results of this procedure.

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Last Updated: Sep 7, 2017

Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration — Overview covers definition, risks, results of these procedures.

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Last Updated: Nov 28, 2018

This procedure replaces unhealthy bone marrow with new stem cells. It may be done with your own cells, or with cells from a donor or umbilical cord blood.

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Last Updated: Oct 24, 2019

This diagnostic test can be used to check for cancer that has spread to the bones, unexplained skeletal pain, bone infection or a bone injury.

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Last Updated: Oct 9, 2019

Learn about the uses, risks and results of this procedure for facial rejuvenation and to treat medical conditions.

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Last Updated: Feb 13, 2019

During brachytherapy cancer treatment, radioactive material is placed inside your body. Find out how brachytherapy is done and who it's for.

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Last Updated: Mar 28, 2018

This procedure delivers precise radiation therapy to treat brain tumors and other brain abnormalities.

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Last Updated: May 22, 2019

Learn more about breast MRI, including how this imaging test helps to diagnose cancer and when you might need one.

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Last Updated: Sep 11, 2019

Know the risks and benefits of breast augmentation and what's involved in surgery to increase breast size.

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Last Updated: Aug 10, 2018

Breast biopsy — Overview covers definition, risks, results of this breast cancer test.

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Last Updated: Jul 31, 2019

Learn about the services available to help you feel better during and after breast cancer treatment.

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Last Updated: Dec 29, 2017

Learn about the types of operations used to treat breast cancer, including lumpectomy, mastectomy, lymph node surgery and breast reconstruction.

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Last Updated: May 11, 2019

Learn more about breast lift surgery, including the benefits, risks and how long recovery takes.

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Last Updated: Jul 21, 2018

Find out what to expect if you're considering breast reconstruction. Learn about the options, incuding TRAM, DIEP and latissimus dorsi flap procedures.

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Last Updated: Jan 8, 2019

Find out what to expect if you're considering breast reconstruction with breast implants after mastectomy. Includes pre-pectoral implant placement.

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Last Updated: Jan 3, 2019

Find out more about this surgery to remove excess fat, tissue and skin from the breasts.

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Last Updated: Apr 4, 2019

Being aware of the normal consistency of your breasts may make it more likely that you'll notice any changes that could be signs of breast cancer.

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Last Updated: Jul 3, 2018

A doctor inserts a small, flexible tube through your mouth or nose into your lungs to look at your air passages and find the cause of a lung problem.

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Last Updated: May 31, 2019

Find out about this surgery to improve the appearance of the forehead and brow, including the possible risks.

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Last Updated: Oct 12, 2018

Understand how a buttock lift can change your appearance and the possible risks.

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Last Updated: Oct 12, 2018

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Inflammation in your body increases the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) in your blood, possibly indicating an infection or other condition.

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Last Updated: Nov 21, 2017

Understand why this surgical procedure to deliver a baby is done, the risks and tips for recovery.

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Last Updated: Jun 9, 2018

Learn how doctors use this blood test to measure levels of a tumor marker associated with ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and other types of cancer.

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Last Updated: Oct 23, 2018

Learn about the risks and results of this imaging test that looks at the arteries that supply blood to your heart.

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Last Updated: May 26, 2017

CT scans provide cross-sectional images of the bones, blood vessels and soft tissues inside your body. Learn how they help doctors quickly detect internal injuries and disease.

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Last Updated: May 9, 2018

Here's what to expect from the canalith repositioning procedure, a series of simple, effective maneuvers to help relieve a certain type of vertigo.

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Last Updated: Jul 10, 2018

Cancer treatments, including surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy, are often combined to cure or control various cancers.

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Last Updated: Apr 5, 2019

Capsule endoscopy involves swallowing a tiny capsule with a camera inside to get a view of the inside of your digestive tract. Find out what to expect.

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Last Updated: Jul 16, 2019

Cardiac ablation — Overview covers risks, what to expect during cardiac catheter ablation to correct heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias).

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Last Updated: Sep 28, 2019

Find out more about this minimally invasive procedure that can diagnose and treat heart problems, including what's involved in the test and the risks.

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Last Updated: Jun 4, 2019

Learn more about this customized outpatient program to improve your heart health through exercise, education and support.

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Last Updated: Aug 9, 2017

Learn why it's done, what to expect from cardiac resynchronization therapy with a pacemaker (CRT-P) or a pacemaker with a defibrillator (CRT-D).

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Last Updated: Dec 28, 2017

Learn what to expect during this procedure to reset your heart's rhythm.

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Last Updated: Jan 4, 2018

This procedure opens a clogged artery to restore blood flow to the brain — and saves you from a stroke.

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Last Updated: Mar 28, 2018

A carotid ultrasound examines the blood flow through the arteries in your neck that deliver blood from your heart to your brain.

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Last Updated: Nov 1, 2018

Cataract surgery — Overview covers risks, complications, results of this eye surgery.

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Last Updated: Aug 31, 2019

The cervical cap can be inserted hours or minutes before sex, and keeps working for up to 48 hours with correct use.

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Last Updated: Sep 7, 2019

Find out how this procedure to close the cervix during pregnancy might benefit your pregnancy.

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Last Updated: May 4, 2018

Learn the steps of this method of natural family planning and understand when during your menstrual cycle you're most fertile.

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Last Updated: Nov 13, 2018

A chemical peel involves removing layers of your skin with a chemical solution. Learn about the risks and results of this skin-resurfacing procedure.

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Last Updated: May 24, 2018

Chemotherapy drugs are used to treat many types of cancer. Learn why it's done, side effects and what to expect during chemotherapy treatment.

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Last Updated: Apr 27, 2017

Overview covers why it's done, what to expect and side effects of drug treatment for breast cancer that targets fast-growing cells.

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Last Updated: Jun 29, 2018

Chest X-rays — Overview covers definition, risks, results of this imaging test.

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Last Updated: Apr 26, 2018

Chiropractors apply a controlled, sudden force to individual spinal joints to improve mobility and relieve discomfort.

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Last Updated: Dec 7, 2018

Does your gallbladder need to come out? Find out what happens during a cholecystectomy — a common surgical procedure to remove your gallbladder.

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Last Updated: Aug 9, 2019

Cholesterol test — Overview covers how to interpret the results of this common blood test.

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Last Updated: Jul 12, 2019

Find out about this prenatal test that can uncover chromosomal and other genetic conditions early in pregnancy.

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Last Updated: Mar 8, 2019

Circumcision can be a religious ritual, a family tradition or a matter of personal hygiene.

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Last Updated: Feb 10, 2018

A cochlear implant is an electronic device that partially restores hearing in people who have severe hearing loss due to damage of the inner ear.

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Last Updated: Oct 29, 2019

Becoming aware of inaccurate or negative thinking can help you view challenging situations more clearly and respond to them in a more effective way.

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Last Updated: Mar 16, 2019

Colectomy — Overview covers what to expect, risks, preparation for colon surgery.

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Last Updated: Jun 26, 2019

Colonoscopy is one option for colon cancer screening. Find out what to expect during this procedure to examine the inside of your colon.

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Last Updated: May 22, 2018

Colposcopy — Overview covers why it's done and what to expect during an exam to diagnose cancer and other problems affecting the cervix, vagina and vulva.

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Last Updated: Jul 25, 2019

Combination birth control pills, oral contraceptives that contain estrogen and progestin, keep you from ovulating.

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Last Updated: Jan 9, 2019

Complete blood count (CBC) — Overview covers definition, preparation, results of this common blood test.

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Last Updated: Dec 19, 2018

Computerized tomography (CT) urogram — Overview covers definition, what to expect and results of this imaging test.

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Last Updated: Jun 11, 2015

These tests help measure brain function after head trauma and help athletes at risk for head injuries.

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Last Updated: May 31, 2019

Contraceptive implant — Overview covers definition, risks, and instructions for using this type of contraception.

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Last Updated: Aug 15, 2019

Learn about this birth control option that prevents pregnancy by blocking sperm from entering the uterus.

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Last Updated: Jan 11, 2019

Find out how this prenatal test uses umbilical cord blood to check for genetic disorders and infections.

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Last Updated: Mar 8, 2019

Cornea transplant uses donor tissue to restore your vision and reduce pain from cornea disease. Our overview helps you see the risks and benefits clearly.

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Last Updated: May 17, 2018

Coronary angiogram — Overview covers preparation, risks and results of this heart disease test.

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Last Updated: Mar 24, 2018

Coronary angioplasty and stents — Overview covers definition and results of this heart procedure used to open clogged arteries.

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Last Updated: Dec 30, 2017

Coronary bypass surgery creates a new pathway to the heart, improving blood flow to the heart muscle.

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Last Updated: Oct 24, 2018

These shots can help relieve pain and inflammation. Potential side effects generally limit the number of cortisone shots you can receive in one year.

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Last Updated: Sep 10, 2019

Learn more about this common blood test used to measure kidney function.

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Last Updated: Dec 22, 2018

Find out how very cold temperatures are used to freeze tissue and treat prostate cancer. Learn about the side effects and potential benefits of cryotherapy.

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Last Updated: May 7, 2019

During cystoscopy, your doctor examines the inside of your bladder using a special instrument that's inserted into the bladder through the urethra.

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Last Updated: Aug 22, 2018

CYP450 tests may help determine how your body metabolizes an antidepressant based on how genes affect your body's response to medication.

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Last Updated: Jul 24, 2018

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Deceased-donor kidney transplant — find out more about this treatment for end-stage kidney disease and what to expect.

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Last Updated: Mar 16, 2018

Learn more about how electrical stimulation of the brain can be used to treat a variety of conditions, including epilepsy and Parkinson's disease.

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Last Updated: Dec 14, 2018

Wire-based appliances or clear aligners that orthodontists use to correct crowded and crooked teeth or a misaligned jaw (an overbite or an underbite).

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Last Updated: May 21, 2019

Regular dental exams, which include teeth cleaning and evaluation for risk of problems, help protect your oral health.

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Last Updated: Apr 24, 2019

Regular dental exams, which include teeth cleaning and evaluation for risk of problems, help protect your child's oral health.

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Last Updated: Feb 1, 2018

A procedure that replaces tooth roots with metal, screwlike posts, which are topped with artificial teeth, giving you the look and function of real teeth.

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Last Updated: Jan 29, 2019

Depo-Provera, a contraceptive injection that's given every three months, contains the hormone progestin to help protect from unintended pregnancy.

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Last Updated: Sep 5, 2019

Find out how this skin-resurfacing procedure can change the appearance of your skin.

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Last Updated: May 23, 2018

The diaphragm can be inserted minutes or hours in advance of sex, and keeps working for up to a day — but doesn't protect against STIs.

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Last Updated: Sep 7, 2019

Understand what to expect during a D&C, including how doctors perform this procedure to remove uterine tissue and what to watch out for during recovery.

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Last Updated: Oct 29, 2019

A discogram is a test to evaluate back pain. It can help your doctor determine if an abnormal disk in your spine is causing your pain.

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Last Updated: Feb 13, 2018

This surgical procedure removes the damaged portion of a herniated disk in your spine. It's most effective for pain radiating down your arms or legs.

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Last Updated: Sep 26, 2019

Donor nephrectomy — Learn how donor nephrectomy is used in living kidney donation, including the benefits and risks of the procedure and what to expect.

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Last Updated: Jul 11, 2019

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Brain cells communicate via electrical impulses, activity an EEG detects. An abnormal pattern can indicate conditions such as epilepsy.

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Last Updated: Dec 7, 2018

EP study — Learn about electrophysiology study, including why it's done, what to expect and risks of this test for heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias).

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Last Updated: Mar 27, 2018

Learn about the procedure for placing ear tubes used to treat middle ear problems.

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Last Updated: May 10, 2019

Find out more about this test for imaging your heart.

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Last Updated: Oct 4, 2018

For women who want to save their unfertilized eggs for a possible future pregnancy, egg freezing is a method for doing so.

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Last Updated: Feb 1, 2019

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) — Find out more about this common, painless test to detect heart attacks and heart rhythm problems. Includes images.

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Last Updated: Feb 27, 2019

ECT can provide rapid, significant improvements in people who have severe symptoms of depression, mania, catatonia or other mental health disorders.

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Last Updated: Oct 12, 2018

Electromyography (EMG) is a procedure used to diagnose muscle or nerve dysfunction. Learn what to expect from your EMG.

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Last Updated: May 21, 2019

Endometrial ablation treats abnormal uterine bleeding and other uterine conditions. Learn about the risks and what to expect during the procedure.

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Last Updated: Sep 8, 2018

Endoscopic mucosal resection removes abnormal tissue from the lining of the digestive tract. It may be used for diagnosis or treatment.

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Last Updated: Dec 14, 2018

Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty is a weight-loss procedure done using a flexible tube passed down through the throat — with no external incision.

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Last Updated: Jan 13, 2018

Learn more about this minimally invasive imaging test combining endoscopy and ultrasound to diagnosis digestive and lung diseases.

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Last Updated: Jun 20, 2018

Surgery may provide relief from epileptic seizures when medications aren't working.

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Last Updated: Jun 18, 2019

This test involves placing a thin, pressure-sensitive tube through your nose into your esophagus to measure pressure as you swallow.

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Last Updated: Jun 8, 2018

Esophagectomy — Surgical treatment for advanced esophageal cancer or Barrett's esophagus at Mayo Clinic.

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Last Updated: Sep 26, 2018

Essure is a permanent type of birth control for women. Learn the risks and whether this type of sterilization is right for you.

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Last Updated: Sep 5, 2019

External beam radiation for prostate cancer — Comprehensive overview covers risks, results of prostate cancer radiation therapy.

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Last Updated: May 10, 2019

Have you scheduled your eye exam? Find out how often you need to have your eyes checked and what to expect from the different types of exams.

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Last Updated: Feb 27, 2019

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Learn about this rare procedure.

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Last Updated: Jan 16, 2019

A face-lift is a surgical procedure that can give your face a younger look. Understand the risks and benefits if you are considering this cosmetic surgery.

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Last Updated: Aug 29, 2018

Find out more about these procedures that can change masculine facial features to feminine features.

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Last Updated: Sep 11, 2019

Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling that can help family members improve communication and resolve conflicts.

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Last Updated: Sep 20, 2017

Fecal occult blood test — Overview covers definition, results of this colon cancer screening test.

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Last Updated: May 4, 2018

The female condom is immediately effective and doesn't require cooperation — or an erection — from a sexual partner. Failure rates, however, are higher than the male condom.

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Last Updated: Sep 7, 2019

Find out more about this feminizing hormonal treatment to promote the matching of your gender identity and body.

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Last Updated: Oct 7, 2017

Find out how feminizing surgical procedures can alter your appearance to promote the matching of your body to your gender identity.

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Last Updated: Sep 26, 2017

Ferritin test — Overview covers definition, preparation, results of this blood test to detect iron deficiency anemia and iron overload.

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Last Updated: Feb 10, 2017

Understand how this prenatal test can be used to rule out preterm labor.

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Last Updated: May 10, 2019

This procedure is done on an unborn baby (fetus) in the mother's uterus to improve outcomes of children with certain birth defects, such as spina bifida.

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Last Updated: Sep 14, 2019

Fetal ultrasound images can help your doctor evaluate how your pregnancy is progressing.

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Last Updated: Jan 3, 2019

Find out about this prenatal test that offers early information about your baby's risk of certain chromosomal conditions.

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Last Updated: Feb 6, 2019

This test is an alternative to colonoscopy to screen for and detect polyps or cancer in the lower part of the colon.

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Last Updated: Oct 25, 2018

Learn more about what you can expect during this uterine fibroid treatment, along with the possible risks and results.

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Last Updated: May 24, 2019

Forceps delivery is sometimes recommended to help guide your baby out of the birth canal during childbirth. Find out what to expect from this procedure.

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Last Updated: Sep 15, 2018

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Gastric bypass is a type of weight-loss surgery. It's important to understand risks and results of gastric bypass and other types of bariatric surgery.

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Last Updated: Dec 28, 2017

Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds a new gene in an attempt to cure disease or improve your body's ability to fight disease.

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Last Updated: Dec 29, 2017

General anesthesia means being put in a sleep-like state during surgery so that you don't feel any pain.

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Last Updated: Dec 4, 2018

Time for your glucose challenge test? Know how to prepare for this gestational diabetes screening.

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Last Updated: Jun 21, 2018

These simple blood tests are performed to screen for diabetes mellitus. Your doctor may recommend one of several of these kinds of tests depending on your risk factors.

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Last Updated: Mar 20, 2018

Learn more about this routine pregnancy screening and how to understand the results.

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Last Updated: May 9, 2018

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Found out what to expect during a HIDA scan — a nuclear imaging procedure used to diagnose liver, gallbladder and bile duct problems.

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Last Updated: Apr 27, 2019

When should you be tested for HIV? Learn what options are available.

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Last Updated: Dec 28, 2017

The HPV test can help identify your risk of cervical cancer. Learn more about how to prepare and what your results may mean.

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Last Updated: May 16, 2018

Hand transplant — Overview covers how this uncommon procedure is performed and its risks.

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Last Updated: Jun 11, 2019

Learn more about this test that can reveal calcium deposits in your blood vessels and know how the findings relate to your heart disease risk.

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Last Updated: Sep 4, 2019

Heart transplant: An end-stage treatment for heart conditions.

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Last Updated: Jul 11, 2019

Learn more about surgery to treat heart valve disease, which involves repairing or replacing affected heart valves.

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Last Updated: Nov 9, 2019

Hematocrit test — Comprehensive overview covers results, what to expect from this red blood cell blood test.

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Last Updated: Feb 12, 2019

Learn about this procedure to filter waste products from the blood, including when it might be needed and possible risks of this kidney failure treatment.

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Last Updated: Jul 23, 2019

Hemoglobin test — Overview covers definition, preparation, results of this blood test.

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Last Updated: Oct 9, 2019

Hip replacement may be an option if your hip pain interferes with daily activities and conservative treatments haven't helped.

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Last Updated: Jun 13, 2018

A Holter monitor is a device used to keep track of your heart rhythm. Learn what to expect if you need one.

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Last Updated: Dec 7, 2018

Learn about home parenteral nutrition treatment at Mayo Clinic and the situations in which this specialized form of food infused through a vein is used.

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Last Updated: Dec 23, 2017

Find out how doctors use hormone therapy for breast cancer. Learn about risks and what to expect during this treatment for ER and PR positive breast cancers.

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Last Updated: Feb 5, 2019

Find out what to expect during hormone therapy for prostate cancer. Learn about your options, including medications and surgery.

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Last Updated: Apr 24, 2019

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy — Overview covers definition, risks, results of procedure to increase blood oxygen.

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Last Updated: Jan 12, 2018

Find out about this relaxed state, the conditions it can help, and the possible risks.

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Last Updated: Nov 1, 2018

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Learn how doctors use imaging tests during radiation therapy to deliver treatment precisely, increasing effectiveness and reducing side effects.

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Last Updated: Nov 9, 2017

Learn more about these devices that help control your heart rhythm, including what's involved in getting one implanted as well as potential risks.

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Last Updated: Nov 8, 2019

Implantable loop recorder — Learn how this heart-monitoring device is different from electrocardiogram and Holter monitor and who might benefit from it.

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Last Updated: Mar 16, 2018

Learn more about the IVF process and what to expect from this assisted reproductive technology used to treat infertility.

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Last Updated: Jun 22, 2019

Integrative medicine combines complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practices with conventional medicine.

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Last Updated: Jun 29, 2018

An intragastric balloon is a silicone balloon filled with saline. It's inserted into the stomach to create a feeling of fullness and aid in weight loss.

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Last Updated: Jan 13, 2018

Learn more about how this infertility treatment is done and what to expect.

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Last Updated: Jul 16, 2019

An intravenous pyelogram is an imaging exam that may be used to help diagnose urinary tract disorders. Learn what to expect during the exam.

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Last Updated: May 9, 2018

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During a kidney biopsy, doctors remove a small piece of kidney tissue to view under a microscope to diagnose kidney problems and guide treatment decisions.

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Last Updated: Jun 5, 2018

This surgical procedure is done to treat kidney failure. Find out about the different types of kidney transplants and what to expect.

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Last Updated: Aug 20, 2019

Knee braces for osteoarthritis may help reduce pain by shifting your weight off the most damaged portion of your knee.

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Last Updated: Jul 18, 2019

If you have arthritis damage in just one area of your knee, osteotomy might buy some time before you need total knee replacement.

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Last Updated: Jul 18, 2018

Knee replacement surgery can relieve pain and restore function to a knee joint that's severely damaged, usually by arthritis.

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Last Updated: Dec 29, 2017

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Learn about this most common type of laser eye surgery to correct vision problems and what to expect before, during and after surgery.

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Last Updated: Nov 8, 2019

Understand what to expect during labor induction, including different techniques and possible risks.

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Last Updated: Sep 11, 2017

The removal of the rear portion of a vertebra (lamina) creates extra space within the spinal canal and can relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerves.

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Last Updated: Jun 13, 2018

Laryngotracheal reconstruction surgery — Comprehensive overview covers why it's done and what's involved with the procedure.

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Last Updated: Mar 21, 2018

Laser hair removal uses a concentrated beam of light to reduce unwanted hair long-term.

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Last Updated: May 16, 2018

Laser resurfacing — Explore your options and learn what to expect from this treatment to improve the appearance of your skin.

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Last Updated: Oct 12, 2018

Light therapy — Explore light therapy as a treatment for seasonal affective disorder and other conditions.

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Last Updated: Feb 8, 2017

Learn about this surgical procedure that removes fat and contours certain areas of your body, including risks, what to expect and how to prepare.

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Last Updated: Feb 26, 2019

Liver biopsy — Overview covers definition, risks, preparation, results for this procedure to examine liver tissue.

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Last Updated: Nov 6, 2018

Liver function tests can help determine how well your liver is doing its job. Find out what to expect and what results are considered normal.

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Last Updated: Jun 13, 2019

Liver transplant — Find out how this procedure treats liver failure and liver disease and what to expect before and after a liver transplant.

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Last Updated: Jul 11, 2019

Living-donor kidney transplant — Find out more about this alternative to deceased-donor kidney transplant and what to expect.

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Last Updated: Mar 22, 2018

Living-donor liver transplant — Learn how to become a living liver donor and what to expect as a living liver donor transplant recipient.

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Last Updated: Oct 18, 2019

This surgical procedure uses a living donor's donated organ, such as a kidney or portion of a liver, to replace another person's failed organ.

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Last Updated: Aug 20, 2019

A spinal tap removes a sample of cerebrospinal fluid to check for infections, bleeding and other abnormalities.

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Last Updated: Apr 24, 2018

Lumpectomy — Overview covers definition, preparation, risks, results of this breast-conserving surgical procedure.

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Last Updated: Oct 31, 2018

Doctors recommend lung CT scans to look for signs of lung cancer in current and former heavy smokers. Find out what to expect during lung cancer screening.

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Last Updated: Aug 9, 2017

Learn what's involved in this major surgery that replaces a diseased or failing lung with a healthy lung, and what you can expect after the procedure.

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Last Updated: Jul 11, 2019

Lung volume reduction surgery is a treatment for severe emphysema. Damaged areas are removed, allowing the lung to function better.

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Last Updated: Nov 16, 2018

M

Learn more about how to prepare for this painless diagnostic test that creates detailed pictures of the inside of the body without using radiation.

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Last Updated: Aug 3, 2019

Magnetic resonance elastography is a newer, noninvasive imaging test used to evaluate the severity of certain liver diseases.

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Last Updated: May 17, 2018

Male condoms — Overview covers definition, risks of this method of STI prevention and birth control.

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Last Updated: Mar 11, 2017

Mammogram — Comprehensive overview covers definition, risks, what to expect, and results of this breast X-ray test used in breast cancer diagnosis.

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Last Updated: Jul 31, 2019

Marriage counseling can help you and your partner recognize and resolve relationship conflicts. Find out what to expect.

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Last Updated: Nov 2, 2019

Find out more about this masculinizing hormonal treatment to promote the matching of your gender identity and body.

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Last Updated: Aug 31, 2017

Find out how masculinizing surgical procedures can alter your appearance to promote the matching of your body to your body gender identity.

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Last Updated: Sep 26, 2017

Learn about this operation to remove one or both breasts for breast cancer treatment or breast cancer prevention. Find out what you can expect.

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Last Updated: Oct 8, 2019

Maze procedure — Learn who may benefit from this open-heart surgery procedure to correct a heart rhythm problem and implant a pacemaker.

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Last Updated: Nov 21, 2018

Learn what to expect when medications are used to end a pregnancy, including side effects, risks and possible complications.

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Last Updated: Jul 7, 2018

Microalbumin test — Overview covers definition, preparation and results of this urine test.

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Last Updated: Dec 19, 2018

Minimally invasive heart surgery — Learn more about this surgery that uses small incisions in the chest as an alternative to open-heart surgery.

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Last Updated: Sep 28, 2019

Minimally invasive surgery — Learn more about laparoscopy or robotic surgical techniques, which may mean less pain and a shorter hospital stay.

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Last Updated: Aug 24, 2019

The minipill is an oral contraceptive that contains only the hormone progestin and no estrogen.

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Last Updated: Mar 2, 2018

Mirena — an intrauterine device that contains the hormone progestin — offers one option for long-acting, reversible birth control.

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Last Updated: Sep 5, 2019

Mitral valve repair and mitral valve replacement

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Last Updated: May 17, 2019

Learn what to expect during this skin cancer surgery that involves removing thin layers of skin until only cancer-free tissue remains.

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Last Updated: Sep 6, 2017

Learn about this breast cancer screening test that's sometimes used in addition to mammograms, especially for women with dense breast tissue.

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Last Updated: Jan 30, 2019

For women who've had unprotected sex or whose birth control method failed, the morning-after pill can help prevent pregnancy.

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Last Updated: Jun 8, 2018

This surgical procedure to treat uterine fibroids tries to preserve fertility using a variety of approaches.

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Last Updated: Jun 11, 2019

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Find out how this cosmetic procedure removes excess skin and fat around the jaw line to create a more youthful appearance.

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Last Updated: Mar 30, 2019

Common needle biopsy procedures include fine-needle aspiration and core needle biopsy.

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Last Updated: Aug 17, 2018

Learn about bladder reconstruction to restore urinary function after bladder removal surgery, including how it's done and possible complications.

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Last Updated: Mar 9, 2017

Complete (radical) nephrectomy is surgery to remove all of a kidney. Kidney-sparing surgery (partial nephrectomy) removes part of a kidney.

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Last Updated: May 17, 2018

Nitric oxide tests aid in asthma diagnosis by measuring the nitric oxide gas in air you exhale. High nitric oxide levels may indicate asthma.

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Last Updated: Jan 16, 2018

Nondirected living donor — Find out what becoming a good Samaritan (nondirected) living organ donor means to transplantation.

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Last Updated: Mar 22, 2018

Understand how this prenatal test uses fetal heart rate monitoring to evaluate your baby's health.

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Last Updated: Mar 22, 2019

A nuclear stress test creates images showing the blood flow to your heart. Here's how to prepare, and what you can expect.

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Last Updated: Dec 28, 2017

The vaginal ring is a hormonal device that helps prevent pregnancy. Find out if this alternative to birth control pills is a good option for you.

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Last Updated: Sep 7, 2019

O

Oophorectomy — Overview covers what to expect, risks of surgery to remove the ovaries for ovarian cancer, tumors, cysts, abscesses and other conditions.

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Last Updated: Jul 25, 2019

Learn about the benefits and limitations of tests to detect mouth cancer.

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Last Updated: Nov 5, 2019

Otoplasty is a procedure that's done to change the appearance of your ears. Learn how it's done, plus the risks and results of this cosmetic procedure.

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Last Updated: Aug 14, 2018

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Learn about the PSA test and how it's used for prostate cancer screening.

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Last Updated: May 4, 2019

A pacemaker implanted in your chest can help correct an abnormal heart rhythm.

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Last Updated: Jun 25, 2019

Palliative care — Learn why it's done and what to expect with this specialized medical care that offers symptom relief for seriously ill people of any age.

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Last Updated: Aug 15, 2017

A pancreas transplant offers a potential cure for people with serious complications from diabetes. Learn about what to expect before and after the procedure.

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Last Updated: Aug 20, 2019

Pap smear is often recommended for cervical cancer screening. Learn how it's done and what abnormal Pap test results might mean.

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Last Updated: Jul 25, 2019

ParaGard — a copper intrauterine device — offers a hormone-free option for long-acting, reversible birth control.

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Last Updated: Sep 7, 2019

Peak flow meter — Overview covers how to use this simple tool to monitor asthma symptoms.

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Last Updated: Jan 12, 2018

Pediatric cervical spine surgery — Learn more about surgery to treat congenital abnormalities or trauma-related injuries to the cervical spine.

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Last Updated: Dec 23, 2017

Find out what’s involved in a pelvic exam, why it might be needed and how to prepare.

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Last Updated: Jul 25, 2019

Penile implants — Explore your choices and learn what to expect from penile implant surgery.

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Last Updated: Jul 13, 2017

Find out how this noninvasive device can be placed on your penis to create an erection.

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Last Updated: Dec 28, 2017

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a procedure for removing large kidney stones. Learn how it is done.

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Last Updated: Aug 15, 2017

Find out what to expect during and after PICC line insertion. Learn about why it's done and potential PICC line complications.

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Last Updated: Aug 29, 2019

Learn how this treatment option for managing kidney failure may give you more flexibility than traditional dialysis.

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Last Updated: Apr 24, 2019

Pillar procedure — Overview covers definition, risks, results of this procedure for obstructive sleep apnea.

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Last Updated: Jan 6, 2018

Your doctor may order a sleep study if a sleep disorder such as sleep apnea is suspected. Learn how to prepare and what to expect.

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Last Updated: Nov 17, 2018

Learn how this imaging scan is used to detect changes within certain tissues or organs early.

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Last Updated: May 24, 2019

Pre-emptive kidney transplant — Find out more about this alternative to dialysis for treatment of end-stage kidney disease and what to expect.

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Last Updated: Jul 12, 2017

Learn how precision medicine uses genetic testing and drug-gene testing (pharmacogenomics) to diagnose, treat and prevent breast cancer.

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Last Updated: May 18, 2018

Premarital counseling can help you discuss build the foundation for a strong marriage.

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Last Updated: Jan 27, 2018

Find out how prenatal cell-free DNA screening, also known as noninvasive prenatal screening, might benefit you and your baby.

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Last Updated: Sep 27, 2018

Prostate biopsy — Comprehensive overview covers why it's done and what to expect during a prostate biopsy.

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Last Updated: Apr 3, 2019

Learn about this type of radiation therapy for prostate cancer that involves placing radioactive seeds or wires in the prostate gland.

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Last Updated: Mar 24, 2018

Understand what to expect, risks and results of this procedure to treat enlarged prostate.

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Last Updated: Jun 6, 2019

Find out about approaches, surgical options and advances in prostatectomy, including robotic surgery and current research.

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Last Updated: Mar 28, 2018

Prothrombin time — Comprehensive overview covers results, what to expect from this liver function test.

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Last Updated: Nov 6, 2018

Learn more about this newer form of radiation therapy that's used to treat cancer and noncancerous tumors. Find out how it's different from X-ray radiation.

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Last Updated: Aug 13, 2019

Psychotherapy — Overview covers definition, risks and results of this mental health treatment.

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Last Updated: Mar 17, 2016

Learn how pulmonary valve repair and replacement can treat pulmonary valve regurgitation and pulmonary valve stenosis in congenital heart disease.

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Last Updated: Mar 27, 2018

Pulmonary vein isolation — Overview covers risks, what to expect during this procedure to correct atrial fibrillation using radiofrequency or cryoablation.

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Last Updated: Mar 27, 2018

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What can a quad screen tell you about your baby? Get the facts.

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Last Updated: Nov 8, 2018

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Radiation therapy is a common means of treating many types of cancer. Find out what to expect during your radiation therapy treatment.

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Last Updated: Mar 28, 2018

Overview covers why it's done, what to expect and side effects of breast cancer radiation, including proton therapy.

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Last Updated: Mar 24, 2018

Bad back, neck or hip? Radiofrequency neurotomy temporarily quiets nerves that cause pain. Know more about this targeted treatment for joint pain.

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Last Updated: May 8, 2018

Rectal prolapse surgery is done to repair protrusion of the rectal lining through the anus. Learn about techniques, risks and results.

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Last Updated: Jun 26, 2019

Do you need an Rh factor blood test? Understand this blood test for pregnant women.

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Last Updated: Jun 14, 2018

Rheumatoid factor — This blood test can help diagnose autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome and lupus.

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Last Updated: Feb 14, 2019

Learn about the benefits, risks and what to expect during nose surgery.

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Last Updated: Feb 12, 2019

Want to know the best time of month to conceive or avoid pregnancy? The rhythm method is a natural form of family planning that can help. Learn the steps.

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Last Updated: Jan 6, 2018

Robotic hysterectomy is a minimally invasive surgery to remove the uterus.

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Last Updated: May 31, 2019

Learn about this minimally invasion procedure to remove uterine fibroids that may reduce pain, blood loss and recovery time.

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Last Updated: Jun 14, 2019

Robotic systems can help surgeons increase precision, flexibility and control for many procedures. Learn about the advantages and availability of robot-assisted surgery.

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Last Updated: Jan 30, 2019

S

SPECT scan — Overview covers definition, risks, results of this imaging test that creates 3-D pictures using a radioactive substance and a special camera.

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Last Updated: Dec 23, 2016

SVT ablation — Learn how heart specialists use supraventricular tachycardia ablation to treat atrial tachycardia and AV node reentrant tachycardia.

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Last Updated: Dec 4, 2018

Learn what's involved in this procedure to treat varicose veins, including the risks and what improvements you can expect.

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Last Updated: Jan 15, 2019

Sed rate is a blood test that can reveal inflammatory activity in your body. It's often used to help diagnose conditions affecting your joints or muscles.

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Last Updated: Aug 3, 2019

Learn what to expect during this procedure to remove and analyze a limited number of lymph nodes to determine whether your cancer has spread.

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Last Updated: Jul 12, 2019

Find out how this nose surgery can straighten the bone and cartilage separating your nostrils. This opens up your nasal passages, making breathing easier.

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Last Updated: Aug 14, 2019

You can address concerns about sexual function, sexual feelings and intimacy, either in individual therapy or in joint therapy with your partner.

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Last Updated: Mar 16, 2019

Skin biopsy — Overview covers definition, risks and what to expect during this skin test.

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Last Updated: Feb 1, 2019

Learn about sleeve gastrectomy, a type of weight-loss surgery that involves removing part of the stomach to make it smaller.

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Last Updated: Jan 11, 2018

Get details on the steps involved — and what's required of you — if you decide to donate sperm and help another family conceive.

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Last Updated: Jul 17, 2018

Learn how to use this type of birth control that prevents pregnancy by killing or immobilizing sperm so that the sperm can't fertilize an egg.

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Last Updated: Jan 26, 2019

This procedure permanently connects two or more vertebrae in your spine. This eliminates motion between the bones and can reduce neck or back pain.

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Last Updated: Aug 10, 2019

Learn more about this test that uses a special breathing tube to diagnose breathing problems, including asthma and COPD.

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Last Updated: Aug 17, 2017

The spleen helps you fight infection, but you can live without it if you have to. Learn about the risks and results of this surgery to remove the spleen.

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Last Updated: Jul 17, 2018

Stereotactic body radiosurgery uses radiation beams to treat tumors in all parts of the body. Understand the benefits and when this incision-free procedure is used.

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Last Updated: Apr 27, 2019

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) uses radiation beams to treat tumors in all parts of the body. Learn what to expect before, during and after this incision-free procedure.

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Last Updated: Apr 27, 2019

Learn about this noninvasive colon cancer screening test that can detect DNA changes in cells collected from a stool sample.

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Last Updated: Nov 16, 2017

This test provides keys to your heart health — here's how to prepare and what to expect.

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Last Updated: Mar 29, 2018

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Find out about tattoo removal options, including laser surgery, surgical removal and dermabrasion.

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Last Updated: May 17, 2018

Telestroke or stroke telemedicine uses technology to provide expert stroke care in smaller communities.

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Last Updated: Dec 5, 2018

Examining your testicles regularly can help you notice changes when they occur and identify testicular problems.

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Last Updated: Jan 4, 2018

Learn about what to expect from a thyroidectomy — a procedure that involves removing all or part of your thyroid gland.

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Last Updated: Apr 18, 2019

If you have unexplained episodes of fainting, a tilt table test might help find the cause.

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Last Updated: Jun 19, 2018

Tonsillectomy — Overview covers definition, risks of procedure to remove tonsils.

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Last Updated: Dec 13, 2018

Understand how this procedure to remove breast tissue can help transgender men transition physically to their self-affirmed gender.

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Last Updated: Sep 27, 2019

Find out how top surgery can help transgender women increase their breast size and improve the shape of their chests.

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Last Updated: Oct 4, 2019

A surgically created hole in the front of the neck provides an air passage to help breathing when the usual route for breathing is blocked or reduced.

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Last Updated: Oct 22, 2019

TAVR — Learn about this minimally invasive procedure to replace a narrowed aortic valve that fails to open properly (aortic valve stenosis).

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Last Updated: Mar 21, 2018

This noninvasive intervention is effective in treating depression by using magnetic fields to stimulate nerve cells in the brain involved in mood control.

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Last Updated: Nov 27, 2018

Learn about this minimally-invasive procedure for treating an enlarged prostate, including how it's done and possible risks and benefits.

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Last Updated: Aug 16, 2019

Learn about this minimally-invasive procedure for treating an enlarged prostate, including how it's done and possible risks and benefits.

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Last Updated: Aug 17, 2019

Learn about this procedure for treating an enlarged prostate, including possible risks and what to expect during and after the procedure.

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Last Updated: Aug 1, 2019

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) — Overview covers risks, results of this enlarged prostate treatment.

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Last Updated: Dec 29, 2017

Tricuspid valve repair and replacement treat tricuspid valve regurgitation and stenosis as well as congenital heart disease, including Ebstein anomaly.

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Last Updated: Mar 27, 2018

Thinking of getting your tubes tied? Tubal ligation is a permanent type of female sterilization. Know the risks and what to expect.

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Last Updated: Mar 29, 2018

A tubal ligation reversal procedure may help give a woman who has had her "tubes tied" the ability to become pregnant.

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Last Updated: Mar 21, 2018

Find out how this procedure can change the appearance of your abdomen, giving you a slimmer silhouette.

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Last Updated: Jul 20, 2019

U

Ultrasound is an imaging method that uses sound waves to create pictures of the inside of your body. Learn how it works and how it’s used.

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Last Updated: Feb 27, 2018

An upper endoscopy is used to diagnose or treat conditions affecting parts of your digestive system. Learn what's involved with this common procedure.

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Last Updated: Sep 29, 2018

Overview covers definition, preparation and results of this common lab test to check urine for signs of disease and for clues about overall health.

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Last Updated: Oct 23, 2019

A urine cytology test uses a sample of your urine to look for abnormal cells, which could indicate a urinary tract cancer.

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Last Updated: Jan 4, 2018

Learn what to expect, risks and results of uterine artery embolization, a minimally invasive treatment for uterine fibroids.

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Last Updated: Jun 8, 2019

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Vacuum extraction is sometimes recommended to help guide your baby out of the birth canal during childbirth. Find out what to expect from this procedure.

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Last Updated: Sep 15, 2018

Is a vaginal birth after cesarean an option for you? Know the factors that might affect your decision and the possible risks.

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Last Updated: Jul 6, 2018

Vaginal hysterectomy involves removing the uterus through the vagina to treat gynecological conditions.

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Last Updated: Dec 13, 2018

Learn more about this procedure that may be used to treat epilepsy and other neurological conditions when other treatments haven't worked.

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Last Updated: Dec 7, 2018

Find out more about this catheter procedure to repair a narrowed heart valve.

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Last Updated: Jan 3, 2018

Find out more about this procedure that provides nearly 100 percent effective male birth control by cutting the supply of sperm to semen.

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Last Updated: Feb 14, 2019

Learn about this microsurgery procedure that can restore your fertility after a vasectomy.

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Last Updated: Jul 11, 2019

Ventricular assist device (VAD) — Overview covers risks and results of this lifesaving heart device.

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Last Updated: Jun 11, 2019

Ventricular tachycardia ablation — Learn how heart specialists use cardiac ablation to treat ventricular tachycardia, including epicardial ablation.

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Last Updated: Mar 27, 2018

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery — Learn about how this minimally invasive VATS procedure is used to treat complex chest (thoracic) problems.

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Last Updated: Oct 21, 2016

Unlike other colon cancer screening tests, this imaging test doesn't use a scope to examine your colon. Learn how it works and what to expect.

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Last Updated: Sep 23, 2017

Find out how voice feminizing therapy and surgery might help trans women achieve communication styles that match their gender identity.

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Last Updated: Sep 28, 2019

W

Learn about traditional and minimally invasive Whipple procedure and other advanced surgeries that help people with pancreatic cancer.

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Last Updated: Jul 11, 2019

Wisdom tooth extraction — Overview covers treatment goals and complications of surgery for wisdom teeth removal.

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Last Updated: Jan 31, 2018

The withdrawal method — pulling the penis out of the vagina before ejaculation — isn't the most effective birth control. Learn about the pros and cons.

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Last Updated: Apr 14, 2018

X

An X-ray is a quick and simple imaging test that can spot problems in your bones, teeth, chest and more. What to know about this diagnostic test.

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Last Updated: Mar 28, 2018