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A living-donor liver transplant is a surgical procedure in which a portion of the liver from a healthy living person is removed and placed into someone whose liver is no longer working properly.
The donor's remaining liver regrows and returns to its normal size, volume and capacity within a couple of months after the surgery. At the same time, the transplanted liver portion grows and restores normal liver function in the recipient.
Why it's done
The number of people waiting for a liver transplant greatly exceeds the number of available deceased-donor livers. Living-donor liver transplant offers an alternative to waiting for a deceased-donor liver.
Having a living liver donor also allows the recipient to avoid some possible health complications while waiting for a transplant. People who have a living-donor liver transplant seem to have fewer medical problems after the procedure than those who receive a deceased-donor liver, as well as a longer survival rate of the donated organ.
Living-donor liver transplants are more common among children who need a liver transplant than among adults because suitable deceased-donor organs are scarce.
Most living liver donors are close family members or friends of the liver transplant candidates.
What you can expect
Before the procedure
To be considered for a living-donor liver transplant, both the donor and recipient must undergo a thorough health and psychological evaluation at a transplant center. Separate transplant teams will care for the donor and recipient during the evaluation process and will discuss the potential benefits and risks of the procedure in detail.
For example, while the procedure often may be lifesaving for the recipient, donating a portion of a liver carries significant risks for the donor.
Matching of living-donor livers with recipients is based on age, blood type, organ size and other factors.
During the procedure
On the day of the transplant, surgeons will remove a portion of the donor liver for transplant through an incision in the abdomen. The specific part of the liver donated depends on the size of the donor liver and the needs of the recipient.
Next, surgeons remove the diseased liver and place the donated liver portion in the recipient's body, connecting the blood vessels and bile ducts to the new liver.
The transplanted liver in the recipient and the portion left behind in the donor regrow rapidly, reaching normal liver volume and function within a couple of months.
People who receive a liver from a living donor often have better short-term survival rates than those who receive a deceased-donor liver. But comparing long-term results is difficult because people who get a living-donor liver usually have a shorter wait for a transplant and aren't as sick as those who receive a deceased-donor liver.